From Conflict to Cooperation: A Macromarketing View of Sustainable and Inclusive Development in Lebanon and the Middle East

Since the beginning of the Syrian war, Lebanon has experienced a major population change and has become the country with the highest number of refugees per capita. The authors apply a macromarketing perspective to study the effects of this population growth on the environmental management of Lebanon, with implications for the Levant and broader Middle East. An analysis of several factors, including geography, climate, population, economics, and politics, offers a holistic and integrative assessment of resource management, quality-of-life (QOL), economic diversification, and inclusive employment. Attention is given to social dilemmas in Lebanon’s consociational politics, and how these dilemmas may be affecting policy making and ultimately sustainable development—locally, nationally, and regionally. The authors share a systemic framework to facilitate understanding and solutions via cooperation and constructive engagement of catalytic institutions, consideration for all stakeholders, and innovative projects that include refugees for best practices to promote sustainable and equitable development, and ultimately peace and prosperity in Lebanon and the Middle East.


Sustainable development  Refugees  Lebanon  Resource management  Syrian crisis  Macromarketing 


Beatriz DeQuero-Navarro, Karine Aoun Barakat, Clifford J. Shultz, Rafael A. Araque-Padilla, and Maria Jose Montero-Simo (2020). From Conflict to Cooperation: A Macromarketing View of Sustainable and Inclusive Development in Lebanon and the Middle East. Environmental Management , 66, Pages 232-247.



Beatriz DeQuero-Navarro
Karine Aoun Barakat
Clifford J. Shultz
Rafael A. Araque-Padilla
Maria Jose Montero-Simo

Environmental Management | 2020

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