Sex-Typing of Leisure Activities: a Test of Two Theories

ABSTRACT - Leisure activities are considered here as a subset of consumption, and we are interested in the relationship between gender schema and leisure activities. In order to test rival predictions about gender schema, sex-typing of leisure activities is related to two individual difference measures: gender personality (Bem 1981) and gender-role attitudes (Spence 1984). 271 subjects were given a list of 75 leisure activities and asked to indicate whether they felt the activity was masculine, feminine, or somewhere in between. We do not find support for Bem’s (1981) theory, but do find partial support for Spence’s (1984) theory. The findings indicate that males sex-type leisure activities to a greater extent than females. Both sex and gender-role attitudes are found to be significant (p<.05) predictors of sex-typing.


George M. Zinkhan, Penelope J. Prenshaw, and Angeline Grace Close (2004) ,"Sex-Typing of Leisure Activities: a Test of Two Theories", in NA - Advances in Consumer Research Volume 31, eds. Barbara E. Kahn and Mary Frances Luce, Valdosta, GA : Association for Consumer Research, Pages: 412-419.


George M. Zinkhan, University of Georgia
Penelope J. Prenshaw, Millsaps College
Angeline Grace Close, University of Georgia/North Georgia College and State University


NA - Advances in Consumer Research Volume 31 | 2004

Share Proceeding

Featured papers

See More


Effects of Brand Knowledge, Motivations, and Trust on Consumption Experience among Millennial Consumers

Ananya Rajagopal, Tecnológico de Monterrey, MEXICO

Read More


M11. Motivated to Be Moral: The Effect of Nostalgia on Consumers’ Recycling Behavior

Xiadan Zhang, Renmin University of China
Xiushuang Gong, Jiangnan University
Jing Jiang, Renmin University of China

Read More


Data... the 'Hard' & 'Soft' of it: Impact of Embodied Metaphors on Attitude Strength

Sunaina Shrivastava, University of Iowa, USA
Gaurav Jain, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
JaeHwan Kwon, Baylor University
Dhananjay Nayakankuppam, University of Iowa, USA

Read More

Engage with Us

Becoming an Association for Consumer Research member is simple. Membership in ACR is relatively inexpensive, but brings significant benefits to its members.