Gender Differences in the Perception of Leisure: a Conceptual Model

ABSTRACT - The purpose of this paper is to develop a conceptual model to study gender differences in the perception of leisure. The model attempts to explain how leisure is differently perceived by men and women, given the diversity of roles they play in contemporary society. After outlining various approaches for defining leisure, it is suggested that gender differences studied in a social context can better explain differences in the perception of leisure than biological sex alone. Propositions of how gender differences may affect the perception of leisure are presented.


Suzana de M. Fontenelle and George M. Zinkhan (1993) ,"Gender Differences in the Perception of Leisure: a Conceptual Model", in NA - Advances in Consumer Research Volume 20, eds. Leigh McAlister and Michael L. Rothschild, Provo, UT : Association for Consumer Research, Pages: 534-540.

Advances in Consumer Research Volume 20, 1993      Pages 534-540


Suzana de M. Fontenelle, University of Houston

George M. Zinkhan, University of Houston


The purpose of this paper is to develop a conceptual model to study gender differences in the perception of leisure. The model attempts to explain how leisure is differently perceived by men and women, given the diversity of roles they play in contemporary society. After outlining various approaches for defining leisure, it is suggested that gender differences studied in a social context can better explain differences in the perception of leisure than biological sex alone. Propositions of how gender differences may affect the perception of leisure are presented.


Leisure is important, because people need freedom to become and to express themselves (Kelly 1982). However, no consensus exists of what leisure really is. Researchers have continuously struggled with definitions of leisure (Iso-Ahola 1980, Neulinger 1974), but no dominant model of leisure has emerged.

Past research has generally defined leisure as time off work; and, consequently, the study of leisure has focused on behavior during non-work time and non-work activities. In more recent years, research attention shifted to the psychological attributes associated with leisure, as research efforts concentrate on the subjective dimensions of leisure and the meanings attached to it. The more recent research focus on the subjective dimensions and meanings of leisure draws attention to the task of defining what leisure is (Samdahl 1991).

It has become evident in recent leisure scholarship that differences do exist in the way females and males address leisure. However, there are some limitations associated with research efforts to date. First, research on males and females has generally investigated sex differences, rather than looking at gender with its social construction of roles based upon biological sex. Secondly, extant research has emphasized proving the existence of gender differences and has used gender differences as explanatory variables of leisure behavior, rather than considering these differences as the starting point of research. By considering gender differences as the starting point of research, it is possible to identify where these differences actually exist and why. Without this focus, research remains merely descriptive (Henderson 1990).

If gender differences are to be treated as the basis for research, the theoretical conceptualization of leisure needs to be re-evaluated. What is considered to be leisure may depend on how men and women were socialized and the extent to which they subscribe to the roles assigned for them in society. The effects of gender differences in leisure behavior cannot be entirely understood without examining how these differences influence what is considered to be leisure in the first place.

Consumer researchers have been aware of the importance of leisure not only because the leisure experience is associated with the acquisition of products and services, but also because leisure is generally recognized as an important component in life satisfaction (Andrews and Withey 1976; Robinson 1977; Unger and Kernan 1983). Besides the interest in the contribution of leisure to life satisfaction, consumer researchers have been increasingly interested in the analysis of hedonic experiences (including leisure) and the way that consumer behavior may be pursued for the subjective and emotional benefits it provides (Havlena and Holbrook 1986; Hirschman and Holbrook 1982a; Hirschman and Holbrook 1982b; Holbrook et al. 1984). The investigation of gender differences in the perception of leisure may provide a fruitful ground for the analysis of hedonic experiences, leisure being an example of such experiences.

Hedonic experiences deserve special attention from consumer researchers, particularly when: (a) individuals are placing self-fulfillment, self-enhancement, travelling, hobbies and other leisure experiences, as their top priorities for the future (Hymowitz 1991); (b) the redefinition of traditional gender roles and changes in what society considers to be accepted behavior for men and women affect how men and women experience leisure. When trying to balance their lives between work, family and friends, men and women start to feel time pressures with little opportunity to experience leisure in a way to promote self-enhancement or a sense of fulfillment. This state of affairs suggests important questions for consumer behavior researchers: what do men and women perceive to be leisure, given their roles in society? What aspects of the leisure experience are perceived to be the most important? Are these aspects perceived to be equally important for men and women?

The purpose of this paper is to present a conceptual model to study gender differences in the perception of leisure. The proposed model offers an exploratory framework for investigating consumers' leisure experiences. The model attempts to integrate:

(a) A conceptualization of gender differences in a social and cultural context.

(b) A conceptualization of leisure that accounts for individual differences in goals, experiences, and attitudes towards work or life.

The paper is organized as follows. First, definitions of leisure are reviewed, and the social nature of leisure is highlighted. Second, a conceptualization of gender differences is presented and its contribution to the study of leisure perceptions is discussed. Third, a conceptual model of gender differences in leisure perceptions is briefly described. Fourth, some implications for research in consumer behavior are outlined and suggestions for future research are made.

The following section presents an overview of conceptualizations of leisure and emphasizes the definition of leisure as an experience. It is argued that this definition of leisure best retains the social nature of leisure.


The conceptualization of leisure

Consumer behavior researchers have studied leisure in a variety of ways. Research on time usage identifies leisure time as being qualitatively different from the time consumers allocate to other pursuits (Jacoby, Szybillo and Berning 1976; Holbrook and Lehmann 1981). For example, Jacoby and his colleagues noted that time has value and that consumers seek to reduce time spent for mandated activities to more desirable free-time activities. More recent studies about time usage have concentrated on the subjective notions of time and focused on the meanings and satisfactions derived from what was experienced during a particular time frame. These studies moved from a more utilitarian perspective of time to a more subjective notion of experiential time (Hirschman 1987, Hornik 1984). Bergadaa (1990) offers insights into distinct perceptions of time different individuals and cultures have and how these perceptions influence their choices. The conceptualization of time as polychronic time was discussed by Hall (1976) and has recently been approached in the consumer behavior literature (Kaufman, Lane, and Lindquist 1991), which might prove helpful to the consideration of leisure within the context of role overload and leisure as a cultural and social phenomenon.

Quality-of-life studies have investigated the extent to which leisure can promote a feeling of well-being and a general feeling of satisfaction towards life (Andrews and Withey 1976). These studies of life quality found that satisfaction with "how much fun you are having" was the strongest contributor to a general sense of well-being, among twelve selected predictors.

Leisure has also been discussed in the literature in terms of its hedonic aspects as a consumption experience (Hirschman and Holbrook 1982a; Hirschman and Holbrook 1982b; Holbrook et al. 1984, Ahtola 1985). Distinct levels of product involvement and product enthusiasm have also been studied as characterizing consumer experiences linked to leisure pursuits (Bloch and Bruce 1985, Bloch 1986). Leisure viewed as "experiential consumption" provides a way to consider the subjective aspects of consumption experiences, rather than exclusively focusing on consumers as rational, economic entities.

Definitional problem

What is leisure? There is no clear answer to this question (or no "correct" answer). The objective of this section is, first, to address several issues that are pertinent to the definition of leisure, rather than advocating one definition as optimal. Second, the conceptualization of leisure as a social experience is presented.

Samdahl (1988) calls attention to the necessity of explicitly identifying the definition of leisure being used within each study so that: (a) the compatibility/incompatibility of distinct lines of research become apparent; (b) the uniqueness of the phenomenon being studied is established; and (c) a linkage between leisure and non-leisure phenomena is provided. These issues discussed by Samdahl serve as guidelines for the way leisure is defined in this paper.

Traditional definitions of leisure

Leisure has traditionally been defined as free-time or non-work time. Leisure is equated to free time by Robinson (1977), who defined free time as the time left after paid work and all activities related to the maintenance of the family, the household and personal care. Another traditional definition of leisure is in terms of participation in particular types of activities (Neulinger 1974), or as activities that individuals choose to pursue in their free time.

The definition of leisure in terms of time and activity presents advantages to researchers to the extent that it enables quantification and comparison. One advantage, for example, is that this definition of leisure enables quantifiable statements about leisure such as: X has twice as much leisure as Y (Wearing and Wearing 1988). However, certain limitations of these definitions deserve consideration.

First, the conceptualization of leisure as free time or as activity does not promote investigation into the meaning of leisure, or into more qualitative aspects of the leisure experience, such as: why does the choice of certain leisure activities prevail over others? What makes these experiences more or less enjoyable? Traditional conceptualizations offer only a descriptive analysis of leisure behavior.

Second, the conceptualization of leisure as free time may not always be appropriate. Many women, for example, feel that they do not have any free time; and women with small children and who also work outside the home do not feel that they have the right to dispose of free time "freely" for themselves (Wearing and Wearing 1988). Furthermore, the lives of women who combine work outside the home and family responsibilities are characterized by role conflict and overload which frequently result in fatigue, emotional depletion and in some cases maternal guilt (Shank 1986).

A third consideration relates to the definition of leisure as an activity. This definition can create theoretical problems according to Kelly (1982), since almost anything may be an obligation under some conditions. One activity can be performed under several different circumstances and be categorized under leisure or not; for example, reading can be for leisure, for work, or for school. Cooking can be for leisure or out of necessity.

As a result of their descriptive nature, the definitions of leisure as free time or as an activity do not provide a framework for studying how leisure experiences may contribute to a better life or to the achievement of self-fulfillment. These definitions are also limited in their capacity to explain potential gender differences in the perception of leisure, given the diverse roles that men and women play in contemporary society.

Leisure as an experience

For the purposes of this paper, leisure is conceptualized as an experience. This definition of leisure takes into account the individual's choice, motivation and perception of the activity and its experience. Leisure conceptualized as an experience can lead to the analysis of the quality of leisure, uncovering anticipated benefits associated with leisure such as self-expression, self-enhancement, enjoyment of the development of social relationships, and/or the joy of integrating mind and body in the activity itself (Neulinger 1974; Kelly 1982). Given the large domain of leisure experiences, in order to fully comprehend the various meanings attached to these experiences, it may be helpful to analyze these experiences in light of their social and cultural context.

The social nature of leisure experiences

Leisure takes place in the social world. It is a product of a particular time and culture, reflecting economic and social structures (Kelly 1982). Given the social nature of leisure experiences, it may be assumed that the meaning of such experiences will also be shaped by social and cultural contexts. As time passes, cultural, economic and social contexts change, and consumers' leisure experiences adapt accordingly. The investigation of gender differences in the perception of leisure needs to account for the social context in which men and women live and interact with each other. Given the dynamic nature of the social context and of male/female interactions, leisure is then a dynamic concept rather than a static one. The conceptualization of leisure as a social experience is adopted in this paper. The next section presents and discusses the concepts of gender identity and gender role attitudes as a way to investigate gender differences in leisure perceptions.

Gender identity and gender role attitudes

Individuals are born male or female but learn to become masculine and feminine through the socialization they receive (Spence and Helmreich 1978). However, people vary in the degree to which they identify with feminine or masculine traits.

The degree to which individuals accept the traits and attributes that are associated with their biological sex is called gender identity. A person who primarily identifies with feminine traits is "feminine", while those identifying with masculine traits are "masculine". Those who identify themselves with both masculine and feminine traits are "androgynous" (Bem 1974; Spence and Helmreich 1978). Inventories such as the Bem Sex Role Inventory (Bem 1974) and the Personal Attributes Questionnaire (Spence and Helmreich 1978) are the tests most widely used to measure gender identity (Beere 1990). Individuals are asked to rate themselves on a five-point Likert-type scale in regard to socially desirable traits for men and women. Depending on the scores obtained from these tests, individuals of both sexes may be classified as "Masculine", "Feminine", or "Androgynous" with respect to gender identity.

The concept of gender roles refers to behavior patterns which are differently displayed by the sexes. These patterns are also established through socialization and determine attitudes and life styles for men and women (Colley 1987).

When one's sense of maleness and femaleness (gender identity) is being developed, this emerging sense of gender identity tends to stimulate the adoption of stereotypical gender-roles. However, once gender identity is established, a myriad of variables tend to influence the individual's attitude towards the roles that are typically assigned for the sexes. These variables have to do with several situational factors such as: one's position in the life cycle, sanctions/rewards for exhibiting a particular type of behavior, abilities, interests, and the relationship of the individual to significant others (Spence and Helmreich 1980). The level of agreement towards roles stereotypically assigned to men and women (gender-role attitudes) can be measured with items developed by Scanzoni (Scanzoni and Szinovacz 1980). These items assess attitudes toward traditional roles for wives and husbands, alterations in husbands' roles etc. Responses are indicated on five-point Likert-type scales.

The influence of gender roles in leisure behavior has also been a topic of research interest. Hirschman (1984) investigated the relationship between gender roles and motives for pursuing leisure activities and found that gender roles consistently explained more variance in leisure activity motives than biological sex. The value of gender roles as predictors of leisure behavior was presented by Colley (1984), who indicated how situational antecedents of leisure (e.g., personal capacities, interest, social acceptance) may be affected by gender roles, and also how gender role expectations may determine the level of satisfaction derived from leisure. However, Colley does not describe the dynamics involved in the process.

A conceptual model of gender differences in the perception of leisure

The leisure literature offers no consensual model of leisure and its underlying dimensions. However, there are certain dimensions of the leisure experience which are more prominent in the literature (Iso-Ahola 1980, Kelly 1982, Neulinger 1974). These leisure dimensions are: perceived freedom, self-expression, social evaluation, and enjoyment.

The first dimension of leisure, perceived freedom, is defined by Neulinger (1974) as a state in which the person feels that what s/he is doing is being carried out freely, without constraint or compulsion, in order to be considered leisure. The second dimension of the leisure experience is self-expression. This dimension relates to the ability of expressing one's true self while at leisure, and to allow for the opportunity to explore one's possibilities. Kelly (1983) alluded to self-expression by presenting leisure as a social space in which we develop expressivity, where individuals do more than respond to norms, where people are able to be and become themselves. The third dimension of leisure, social evaluation, relates to the conscious monitoring of one's self in regard to social standards and expectations (Samdahl 1991). The social evaluation dimension is related to the self-expression dimension given that self evaluation constitutes a barrier to self-expression. Kelly (1983) refers to the social evaluation aspect of leisure when he indicates that, when an individual engages in leisure, there is a degree of approval seeking, acceptance and respect as ways to validate one's selfhood. Enjoyment is the fourth dimension of leisure and it relates to the fact that leisure promotes pleasure and fun (Shaw 1985). It is suggested here that leisure will be experienced in its pure sense when individuals perceive their freedom level as high, are able to express themselves truly, feel that social evaluation is absent, and feel the experience is enjoyable.

The importance of the four constituent elements of leisure (freedom, self-expression, social evaluation, and enjoyment) may be differently perceived by masculine, feminine, or androgynous individuals. An analysis of these differences is the focus of this paper. Figure 1 presents a model for the investigation of gender differences in the perception of leisure. It is proposed in the model that people are born either male or female but acquire masculine, feminine or androgynous gender identities through socialization. According to their gender identities, individuals tend to develop gender role beliefs. These beliefs are constantly under the influence of a series of situational variables which challenge or confirm such beliefs. According to the specific situation people are in, they develop gender role attitudes which may agree/disagree with what is traditionally considered to be acceptable behavior for each sex (traditional/non-traditional gender role attitudes). It is the contention of this paper that:

(a) Individuals with traditional gender role attitudes present a strong sense of gender identity either feminine or masculine and tend to subscribe to the gender roles that are typically assigned to each sex.

(b) Individuals with non-traditional gender role attitudes do not present a strong sense of gender identity either masculine or feminine but identify themselves with both masculine and feminine traits. These individuals tend to subscribe to gender roles that are typically assigned to both sexes indiscriminately.

The focus here is on which leisure dimension will be more important to consumers, as a function of their gender role attitudes. Certain relationships are of particular interest to the study of leisure at a time when men and women are looking for a better balance between work, family, and when self-fulfillment ranks high on their priorities for the future. A detailed representation of the relationships proposed in the model is depicted in Table 1. The research propositions are also presented in the Table and subsequently discussed in the text.

Relationships are predicted between feminine, masculine, androgynous individuals and their perception of leisure (as a function of the freedom dimension, for example). Feminine individuals are assumed to have a higher level of agreement with the roles that are traditionally allocated to women, such as the roles of homemaker and caregivers. Several studies have indicated that the adoption of such roles presents limitations in the ability to freely experience leisure (Colley 1984; Henderson 1991; Shank 1986). These limitations may assume different forms; for example, to the extent that feminine individuals accept traditional female roles, they are bound to regard their leisure as being closely tied to the leisure of their partners and children (Woodward and Green 1988). Leisure for them might be inherently associated with the leisure, needs and demands of others (Deem 1986). The adoption of female roles implies that family and spouse duties are to be given priority, and personal leisure is not viewed as a viable option if it represents putting family and spouse in second place. The adoption of feminine roles may also result in the accumulation of work inside the home as well as outside the home, resulting in less opportunities to choose freely time, place, or leisure companions. Therefore, the freedom dimension is not expected to be closely associated with leisure perceptions for feminine individuals (P1 in Table 1). Here, leisure is not expected to be experienced, free from social obligation or responsibility.



Given that masculine individuals are assumed to accept the roles typically assigned to men, it is predicted that these individuals will have fewer constraints with regard to their ability to experience leisure. The adoption of male roles decreases the degree of responsibility towards housework and child care, for instance, and increases the degree of independence these individuals can enjoy. For masculine individuals, leisure is experienced with relative freedom to choose leisure locations, companions, and activities; leisure may be experienced independently from the needs and demands of others. It is predicted that, for masculine individuals, the perception of leisure is more closely tied to its freedom component (P2A).

Androgynous individuals do not subscribe to any particular set of roles exclusively, and are able to conform to roles that can best fit their lifestyles and conveniences. They are free to choose leisure partners, activities and so forth. Therefore, it is also predicted that androgynous individuals will perceive leisure to be closely associated with their ability to independently choose leisure activities and companions (P2B).

Another set of relationships is hypothesized for the social evaluation component of leisure. Both masculine and feminine individuals tend to adopt traditional gender role attitudes and, consequently, conform to the roles that are assigned to the sexes. Deviations from these traditional roles may cause the feeling of not adopting the "correct" behavior or, not doing the "right" thing. These individuals are expected to be apprehensive in regard to the judgments of others and are expected to be concerned about making a good impression on others. Consequently, social evaluation plays an important role in the way they experience leisure (P3A and P3B). In contrast, androgynous individuals tend to adopt non-traditional gender role attitudes and do not subscribe to those roles which are traditionally assigned to the members of each sex. Routinely, they tend to adopt a myriad of roles; and social evaluation is expected to be absent from their leisure experience (P4).

Masculine and feminine individuals tend to accept what is traditionally expected of men and women in society; and, consequently, they may have limited opportunities to express themselves, given their adherence to more traditional roles. As a result of the way that social evaluation permeates the leisure experience of masculine and feminine individuals, these consumers are expected to define leisure as a function of self-expression. Given their limited ability to express themselves, something will be perceived to be leisure the more they can express themselves and ignore the social evaluation aspect (P5 A and 5B). The same does not apply to androgynous individuals. Given their lower adherence to stereotypical gender roles, they are not so constrained in their capacity to express themselves. Therefore, their perception of leisure is not as dependent on the self-expression dimension, as it may be for feminine and masculine individuals (P6).



Leisure perceptions are not expected to vary for the enjoyment dimension. Although the association between leisure and enjoyment has not been investigated thoroughly (Samdahl 1991), it is presumed here that people universally perceive leisure to be a function of the enjoyment they derive from it (P7).


When trying to measure the impact of gender differences on leisure perceptions, measurement is a crucial issue. For example, the social context of gender differences in leisure experiences cannot be fully understood without trying to comprehend how consumers experience leisure in their daily lives. This type of understanding may best be achieved through the utilization of qualitative methodologies which promote an unobtrusive observation of the leisure experience in its natural context.

Advantages of qualitative methodologies have been discussed by leisure researchers and have centered around the argument that such techniques have the potential to provide better descriptions of phenomena being studied, since situational and contextual circumstances are present. Furthermore, the variety of contexts and social systems in which consumers are involved may become more apparent.

Survey methodology may also prove fruitful. For example, the seven propositions presented in Table 1 could be tested through the administration of surveys in which: (a) individuals provide ratings of their gender identity (Personal Attributes Questionnaire/ Bem Sex Role Inventory); (b) individuals indicate their gender-role attitudes (Scanzoni Scales); and (c) dimensions of leisure (freedom, social evaluation, and enjoyment) are operationalized. It may also be useful to determine which specific leisure activities (or experiences) are associated with each leisure dimension. Of course, there may be important gender differences in these ratings.


Implications for Consumer Behavior Research

The preceding sections of this paper examined issues related to the perception of leisure which may be beneficial to consumer research. First, the investigation of leisure was linked to a broader research topic in consumer behavior, the study of hedonic consumption and experiential aspects of consumption. Attempts were made to show how the investigation of leisure perceptions may contribute to our understanding of how consumers attach meanings to hedonic consumptions (e.g., purchase of leisure goods, travelling, attending the opera or the ballet).

Second, leisure perceptions were investigated in light of more contemporary concepts of gender differences (which have already appeared in the consumer behavior literature but not specifically in consumer studies of leisure). The consideration of gender differences in a social context reveals interesting aspects concerning the distinctions between men and women and how these differences may affect perceptions of leisure experiences. The proposed model also attempts to present a more comprehensive view of how gender related variables may moderate the way leisure is perceived and, therefore, how gender influences leisure behavior.

Third, in this paper, leisure perceptions were examined as part of a broader social context where an individual's perception of what is considered to be leisure is based upon one's interpretation of the social context and one's interaction with the social environment. For example, it may be that consumers view certain leisure activities as related clusters, and experience with one activity from within a cluster may influence perceived satisfaction with other activities within that cluster (Zinkhan and Wallendorf 1985).

Practical Implications

Marketing managers may want to consider other means for segmenting the markets for leisure goods and services beyond biological sex. The consideration of leisure activities and preferences typically assigned to males and females may have to be re-evaluated. Also, marketing managers may want to consider the complexity of the social relations embedded in people's perceptions of leisure. Promotional themes may be expanded to address the social aspects involving leisure and to place leisure goods and services in contexts that make sense to people, given their social realities.

Assumptions about time, place and companionship for leisure may also have to be reconsidered. For instance, women's changing roles in society may provide them with a wider latitude for choice of time, place and companions for leisure. More women may be willing to go to a bar with only female friends; more men may be willing to spend more time with their children. Thus, there may be implications for consumer behavior researchers who are interested in studying consumers' allocation of time.

There are, of course, important segments within the broader male/female population which should be studied. For example, professional female managers possess certain personality traits which allow them to climb the corporate ladder; but these same traits may put them at odds with traditional assumptions about feminity. Since corporations need their research and strategy skills, female executives often experience rapid upward job mobility. However, such women may be accused by some of their male peers as emotionally cold and unfeminine, since they do not conform to traditional social roles of women as extroverted, caring and overtly compassionate persons (Kroeger and Thulsen 1992). In our analysis, we have largely assumed that males or females would follow traditional sex-role patterns; and this might not always be the case. And this, in turn, raises important concerns about the work place (and, consequently, concerns about leisure patterns) in the twenty-first century.

Directions for Future Research

The model proposed here could serve as basis for future research. Beyond the issue of empirically testing the proposed relationships (Table 1), it would be interesting to assess the relationship between perceptions of leisure and subsequent leisure behavior. Also, it is important to substantiate the dimensions of leisure used in the model.

The proposed model assumes dimensions of leisure which may be relevant to the way Americans, and members of other western societies, experience leisure. However, leisure dimensions may vary cross-culturally given that leisure experiences are considered to be socially and culturally determined. The consideration of what constitutes masculinity, femininity and androgyny is also culturally determined. Future research is needed to expand the relationships being proposed here to other cultures and societies.

As discussed in the measurement issues section, it may be fruitful to operationalize leisure through a variety of observational and survey methods. Qualitative methodologies may contribute with valuable insights of what cultural and social elements make up for potential variations in what constitutes leisure for men and women in environments different than our own. It is important to realize that the traditional survey methodologies available, such as the Bem Sex Role Inventory, translate cultural definitions of femininity and masculinity typical of the American Society (Payne 1985). Although the BSRI has been used in cross-cultural studies (Beere 1990), its results need to be considered in the light of American standards of femininity and masculinity. The investigation of gender differences in leisure perceptions may contribute to the development of knowledge in consumer behavior research. Changing times require novel ways of looking at old ideas; this paper may serve to stimulate a new stream of leisure research.


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Suzana de M. Fontenelle, University of Houston
George M. Zinkhan, University of Houston


NA - Advances in Consumer Research Volume 20 | 1993

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Featured papers

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Can Implicit Theory Influence Construal Level?

Olya Bullard, University of Winnipeg
Sara Penner, University of Manitoba, Canada
Kelley Main, University of Manitoba, Canada

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When products become autonomous: Drawbacks of a perceived lack of control and how to resolve it

Moritz Joerling, RWTH Aachen University
Robert Böhm, RWTH Aachen University
Stefanie Paluch, RWTH Aachen University

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D5. Bragging about Effort? Personal Effort Decreases Word-of-Mouth

JIEXIAN (Chloe) HUANG, Hong Kong Polytechic University
Yuwei Jiang, Hong Kong Polytechic University

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