Values and Issues in the Field of Consumer Research: a Content Analysis of ACR Presidential Addreses

ABSTRACT - A content analysis of ACR presidential addresses using quantitative and qualitative procedures revealed that their implicit value content varied and formed three clusters. These clusters were related to the major issue differentiating the addresses--those focusing upon the discipline and those focusing upon the organization. An explanation for these findings and their implications are discussed.


Susan Spiggle and Cathy Goodwin (1988) ,"Values and Issues in the Field of Consumer Research: a Content Analysis of ACR Presidential Addreses", in NA - Advances in Consumer Research Volume 15, eds. Micheal J. Houston, Provo, UT : Association for Consumer Research, Pages: 5-12.

Advances in Consumer Research Volume 15, 1988      Pages 5-12


Susan Spiggle, The University of Connecticut

Cathy Goodwin, Georgia State University


A content analysis of ACR presidential addresses using quantitative and qualitative procedures revealed that their implicit value content varied and formed three clusters. These clusters were related to the major issue differentiating the addresses--those focusing upon the discipline and those focusing upon the organization. An explanation for these findings and their implications are discussed.


The Association for Consumer Research, like other scientific organizations, has its mission and long term goals defined by charter. Organizational values that are subject to cultural change (Namenwirth 1987) shape its direction, form and resource commitments. Whether values determine behavior is a debatable question. However, the articulation of values and discussion of issues in an organization provides us with insights about its idealizations, its goals, and its ideological commitments. Namenwirth (1987) argues that organizational values may be identified by analyzing the addresses delivered by presidents to the membership. This paper analyzes fourteen addresses delivered by ACR Presidents and identifies values that reflect the organization's culture and the recurring issues and themes.


Namenwirth (1987) analyzed changing values of three long-lived scientific organizations, the American Chemical Society, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and the American Economic Association. Using an automated, quantitative content analysis, he analyzed presidential addresses of these organizations in three selected Lime periods from 1900 to 1970. Presidential addresses, he argued, are appropriate documents for such an analysis for three reasons. (1) They appear at yearly intervals. (2) They are delivered to a large audience and "thus must be of general, rather then arcane interest." (3) Delivered by departing presidents, typically centrally connected to the field, they are likely to reflect fundamental issues and concerns.

Namenwirth constructed a profile for each document analyzed by counting word frequencies assigned to one or another category defined by a value dictionary. He factor analyzed the resulting categories and obtained five factors, representing issues or dilemmas that differentiated the presidential addresses over time and across scientific organizations.

These five factors represent continua with bipolar positions. They are anchored by contrasting issue themes. Namenwirth argued that they are latent issues or controversies, not explicitly articulated as the major controversial issues of the moment upon which the speaker takes a position. Rather, they are implicit, "potentially divisive issues, consisting of two counterviews." These five factors form the conceptual foundation of our quantitative content analysis:

VALUE ORIENTATION--Value laden vs. Value neutral [Following Namenwirth (1987), factors are written in capital letters and poles are written with the first letter capitalized.]: This dimension raises the question of whether the address commits itself to values, or demonstrates an absence of value concerns by employing descriptive and analytic discourse and technical scientific language.

SCIENTIFIC ORIENTATION -- Applied vs. Theoretical: This dimension addresses the question of whether scientific inquiry should be guided by questions of utility and application external to the discipline, or by questions of truth and the pursuit of knowledge.

ORGANIZATIONAL SCOPE -- Cosmopolitan vs. Parochial: This dimension addresses the issue of whether the organization should concern itself with problems at the border of the discipline and the surrounding world, or with its internal affairs.

SCIENTIFIC PROGRESS -- Meta-theory vs. Methods: This dimension concerns the question of what produces scientific progress--speculation and theoretical elaboration, or development of methods and instruments.

ORDER ORIENTATION -- Liberty vs. Regulation: This dimension addresses the issue of whether social order is seen as the product of liberty, competition, and individual activities, or authoritative planning, regulation, and centralized control. This latter factor was dropped from the present analysis because of the virtual lack of content concerning it found in ACR presidential addresses.



The data for this analysis include the fourteen ACR presidential addresses delivered between 1972 and 1986, commencing with the institution of formal presidential addresses. It does not include the addresses delivered by Engel and Perloff as Chairmen of the Advisory Council in 1970 and 1971. Also, Wells did not deliver an address in 1974. Cohen's address in 1972 was published in the ACR Newsletter, the remaining ones in Advances in Consumer Research.

The Quantitative Analysis

Because the computer automated content analysis program, using words as the basic datum of inquiry, was not available at the time of the analysis, we operationalized Namenwirth's five factors in the following manner. Paragraphs were defined as the basic unit of data, and a content coding scheme was developed that reflected the Namenwirth (1987) factor dilemmas [The content coding scheme is available by request from authors.].

The data collected using Namenwirth's dimensions was used to develop a profile of each address. The profiles were constructed as follows:

1. The content analysis was conducted by both authors independently. Every paragraph of each speech was coded to indicate the presence or absence of each pole of the 5 bipolar categories. An acceptable intercoder reliability rate of 87% (Kassarjian 1977) was achieved. Coding disagreements were resolved by mutual agreement.

2. For each speech, the percentage of paragraphs containing a given bipolar orientation was computed. Thus, for the category VALUE ORIENTATION,a given speech would be scored 30% Value-laden if 30% of its paragraphs contained value-laden material and 890 Value-neutral if 8% of its paragraphs contained value-neutral material. For any pole, scores could range from 0% to 100%.

3. Speeches were profiled based on percentages of paragraphs utilizing content representing each bipolar category.

4. Profiles were submitted to a cluster analysis using Ward's method (Punj and Stewart 1983) to identify similarities in value profiles of the addresses along the four value dimensions, VALUE ORIENTATION, SCIENTIFIC ORIENTATION, ORGANIZATIONAL SCOPE, and SCIENTIFIC PROGRESS. (See the Appendix for graphic presentation of profiles.)


Three clusters were identified. Cluster 1 (Organizational Dynamics) includes the addresses of Cohen (1971) [Dates following addresses are the years during which the address was delivered.] Pratt (1973), Gardner (1976), Bernhardt (1983), and Sheth (1984). They are characterized by high relative frequency of parochial content on the ORGANIZATIONAL SCOPE dimension, a relative absence of attention to the SCIENTIFIC PROGRESS dimension, moderate incorporation of Value Laden content, and varying concern with the SCIENTIFIC ORIENTATION dimension. Illustrative quotes from Cluster 1 are:

"Why was ACR started in the first place? Viable organizations or institutions are not born in a vacuum. While the need for an organization must be perceived and implemented by individuals, motives underlying such implementation most often result from a recognition that there is a purpose to be served that is not being effectively met by existing institutions." (Pratt 1973)

"Many of us consider ACR the primary organization with which we identify. We're associated with a very prestigious journal. The conference itself and the proceedings are of the highest quality and I think are generally perceived as such. I think we have been successful in advancing the field substantially in many, many areas." (Bernhardt 1983).

Cluster 2 (Application of Theory) contains the speeches of Hunt (1979) and Kernan (1978). They are similar in their frequent use of Value Laden content and strong Applied orientation. They address the ORGANIZATIONAL SCOPE dimension only briefly and fall on the Parochial side when they do so. Finally, they make reference to the Applied pole of the Scientific ORIENTATION dimension more frequently than any other addresses, but incorporate a moderate number of references to the Theoretical pole. The following quote by Hunt (1979) represents this cluster.

"Where we have strong points of view based on our professional expertise, I feel we have an obligation to enter the public arena to do all that we can to see that our point of view prevails."

Cluster 3 contains the addresses of Jacoby (1975), Kassarjian (1977), Wilkie (1980), Olson (1981), Zaltman (1982), Wright (1985), and Bell: (1986). The cluster is generally defined by its relative lack of attention to the ORGANIZATIONAL SCOPE dimension. The cluster solution suggests that it is composed of two subclusters. Subcluster A (Development of Knowledge) contains the addresses of Jacoby (1975), Kassarjian (1977), Wilkie (1980), and Belk (1986). The content of these speeches is similar in their substantial use of Value Laden material and references to the Theoretical pole of the SCIENTIFIC ORIENTATION dimension. Jacob 1'S address (1975) fits least well with this subcluster in that it shows fewer references to the Theoretical pole of the SCIENTIFIC ORIENTATION dimension, and it is the one address out of the fourteen that makes frequent references to the Methodological pole of the SCIENTIFIC PROGRESS dimension. The following quotes illustrate this subcluster.

"...a personal choice to attempt to contribute to knowledge is not an empty or minor gesture. The first perspective which I encountered in beginning to address the question was a realization that, by opting to assert a goal of 'adding to knowledge,' we have elected to join the thousands of men and women who have also sought this goal, and who have gone before us." (Wilkie 1980)

"Besides the day-lo-day choices of a consumer, there are the decade-to- decade consumption choices made by societies. There is much that is of great human consequence in consumption, and yet we have for the most part wasted our talents on the dog-food level of things." (Bell: 1986)

Subcluster B (Progress through Theory) is composed of the addresses of Olson (1981), Zaltman (1982), and Wright (1985). The similarities in their addresses arise from considerable content about the Meta-theoretical pole of the SCIENTIFIC PROGRESS dimension and the Theoretical pole of the SCIENTIFIC ORIENTATION dimension. Wright's address differs from the other two in this subcluster in its relative lack of Value Laden content, compared to the moderate incorporation of Value Laden content by Zaltman and Olson. Quotes from Olson's (1981) and Zaltman's (1982) addresses typify this subcluster.

"To have a viable science of consumer behavior, we must have viable theories of consumer behavior. Thus, doing consumer behavior science involves working with theoriesCdeveloping, testing, modifying, and improving theories of consumer behavior phenomena." (Olson)

"...the quality of our research primarily follows the quality of our ideas and concepts. This is an assertion that some of you may challenge. However, I trust DO one would dispute the general importance of concept development. I then observe that while we have not done at all badly with our cu rent ideas we may soon be depleting most of what they have to offer." (Zaltman).

The three clusters that emerged in the quantitative content analysis utilizing Namenwirth's categories do not show a simple, linear relationship to the dimension of time. That is, earlier and later speeches are found in the first and third clusters. However, the first cluster contains a disproportionate number of speeches in the early period, and the third cluster a disproportionate number of speeches in the later period. The second cluster contains two addresses that are temporally adjacent and represent the approximate mid-point in time of the life of ACR. The time span covered by these addresses is far too short to allow identification of trends. However, the temporal pattern suggested by the clusters suggests that central concerns and value positions may shift as the organization becomes established and gains recognition and acceptance.

The following analysis supplements the preceding one. The search for recurring themes, issues, and positions using an inductive, qualitative analysis revealed similarities to that of the quantitative, deductive analysis and also uncovered trends that were not revealed by the five categories suggested by Namenwirth.


The Organization and the Discipline

All but one of the fourteen speeches can be classified into two major categories-- the organization oriented and the discipline/research oriented. Only Hunt's speech (1979), discussing pragmatic and ethical issues of the expert witness, fails to fit into these two broad categories. - The organization oriented speeches, which entirely comprise Cluster 1, focus on what ACR as an organization can do to help members and improve research. Membership growth and composition are key issues. Some of these speeches (notably Sheth 1984, Gardner 1976, and Cohen 1972) address issues in the field of consumer behavior. However, their primary focus is directed at ACR's role in improving research by facilitating interdisciplinary connections (Gardner 1976 and Cohen 1972), setting standards (Cohen 1972 and Sheth 1984), and encouraging broader research interests (Sheth 1984). Pratt (1973), Gardner (1976), and Bernhardt (1983) expound upon the history, present status, and future of ACR as an organization.

The other eight speeches, which comprise Cluster 3 and include Kernan's address, focus OD the discipline of consumer behavior, pointing to its shortcomings and arguing for improvements. ACR is mentioned only in passing and, in some speeches, not at all (Wright 1985, Belk 1986). Jacoby (1975) and Wilkie (1980) accept the prevailing research paradigm and insist on the need to raise the quality of consumer behavior research. Their solutions implore consumer researchers to make a greater commitment to and use of the canons of traditional science. In a similar vein, Kassarjian (1977) argues that attributing less involvement to the consumer and wording towards simpler explanations will provide improvements to the field.

In contrast, Kernan (1978), Olson (1981), Zaltman (1982), Wright (1985), and Belk (1986) challenge the traditional views of theory and research and advocate novel perspectives whose adoption is seen as beneficial for improving the field. Kernan (1978) and Wright (1985) propose that the investigation of everyday, ordinary marketplace events involving persuasion attempts (e.g., low balling and consumers' intuitive theories) can provide the field with a needed shot of relevance and excitement. Olson (1981) and Zaltman (1982) argue for innovative theoretical approaches that encourage theory and concept development in the field as opposed to theory borrowing and theory testing. Belk (1986) invites consumer researchers to include a macro perspective that shifts research concerns to the impact that marketing activities and consumption choices have upon human well being.

The organization oriented speeches suggest that ACR can play at least a facilitating role in improving research quality. The discipline/research oriented speeches do not identify any institutional structures that can contribute to their goals, although Kernan (1978) makes a passing reference to MSI's role in marketing. These latter speeches address an audience that is seen as well trained and employ moral suasion (Wilkie 1980), or intellectual suasion to enjoin them to rise to the presidential challenge. Thus, the discipline-oriented speeches focus on output, rather than input or process concerns.

Consumer Behavior as a Distinct Discipline

Six past presidents addressed the status of consumer behavior as a distinct discipline, particularly in relation to marketing, social psychology, and other fields recognized as independent areas. Kassarjian (1977), Wright (1985), and Belk (1986) argue explicitly for the distinct nature of the field by pointing to the uniqueness of the phenomena that consumer researchers should be studying. For Kassarjian it is "the thousands of insignificant and trivial [consumer] decisions in the world." For Wright it is marketplace gamesmanship and for Belk it is the impact of consuming decisions on society and human well being--' the relationship between consumer behavior and the rest of life."

Similarly, Jacoby (1975) argues that consumer behavior is "independent of any disciplinary orientation" as it is a "fundamental form of human behavior" that exists independently of the formal disciplinary organization investigating it. Gardner (1976) distinguishes consumer behavior from the field of marketing and points to its interdisciplinary foundations. He argues that the field's distinctiveness is conferred by its focus on the consumer in market relationships, regardless of the academic rubric under which investigation occurs. While Jacoby and Gardner suggest that specialists in such fields as psychology and sociology can be considered consumer researchers, Olson (1981) argues that consumer behavior will become a "science" only as the field develops its own theories rather than borrowing from other disciplines.

In summary, there appears to be a consensus that consumer behavior as a field of study can be differentiated from such fields as social psychology, sociology or even marketing. However, disagreement exists as to whether the theoretical orientation of the field is sufficiently developed to allow its consideration as a truly independent discipline.

Interdisciplinary Nature of Consumer Behavior

A number of the speeches make reference to the need for consumer behavior researchers to draw on a variety of disciplines. Cohen (1972) suggests that meetings represent an opportunity for members to interact with individuals from other disciplines. He urges members to develop a "broader approach" to consumer problems. Pratt (1973) points to the interdisciplinary mission of ACR. Gardner (1976) identifies "roots" of consumer research in several disciplines, including economics. As does Cohen, he advocates ACR's attraction of researchers from all fields, but sees the need for ACR to be "pre-eminent" before other researchers will join. Wilkie (1980) not only ties interdisciplinary relationships to ACR's purpose, but also identifies specific "basic disciplines" whose "mastery" may be a prerequisite for contributing to consumer research. Sheth (1984) also urges researchers to "learn new disciplines" such as resource management, as well as the "traditional" psychology-based disciplines. In summary, presidential speeches have endorsed interdisciplinary contact and even recommended specific non-marketing disciplines for researchers.

The Consumer Perspective

Three past ACR Presidents suggest that the consumer's view of marketing may differ substantially from the marketer's. Although this theme occurs in only three speeches, it is worth noting because these three speeches deal with the issue fairly extensively. Wright (1985) offers the most complete treatment, devoting his entire speech to what he calls a "schemer schema," the notion that consumers expect marketers to follow certain techniques and therefore discount information received through marketing sources. Wright argues that consumer researchers have an opportunity to make a significant intellectual mark by investigating these intuitive consumer understandings. Kassarjian (1977) and Belk (1986) question the importance of consumption in the consumer's life: the centrality of consumption activity to consumer research, they suggest, does not necessarily reflect a similar focus in the subjects being studied. Kassarjian suggests that we have "projected" our sense of importance about consumer goods purchases onto the consumer whose world "is mostly full of insignificant decisions and unimportant solutions."

Public Policy

The contribution of consumer research to public policy is mentioned briefly and in general terms. An exception is Pratt (1973) who discusses insights on substance abuse available from consumer research. Cohen (1973) suggests the importance of "consumer welfare;" Jacoby (1975) indicates a need for researching "social issues;" Belk (1986) urges an exploration of "macro issues" of fundamental significance to humanity; and Hunt (1979) certainly makes reference to public policy in his discussion of the expert witness. Generally speaking, public policy concerns are not a substantial focus of ACR presidential addresses.

Human Growth as Metaphor for ACR

No fewer than five A( R presidents chose human growth as a metaphor for ACR's growth and development. Pratt (1972) writes, "As organizations grow, ACR is still in diapers," and refers later to the organization that was "born." Cohen (1973) says ACR has been "the new kid on the block," but at his speech, "the infant begins to grow to maturity." Gardner (1976) refers to "birth" and "maturity" of the field. Kassarjian (1977) writes that JCR had been "conceived" and would soon be "born" and paraphrases Pratt's depiction of ACR as "a fledgling adolescent." Finally, Sheth (1984) speaks of ACR's "mid-life crisis."

This repeated comparison with human growth suggests the strong involvement of past presidents with the organization and related institutions. The choice of a metaphor of human growth, rather than the product life cycle metaphor familiar to all marketers, suggests also that the presidents view ACR as a life form, rather than a product which exists independently of its ownership.


Consumer Behavior Education

Virtually all academic ACR members engage in some teaching, and a number of government and industry members serve as adjunct faculty. A large percentage of ACR members can be expected to have taken marketing research and consumer behavior courses. The content and quality of these courses can influence career choices, as well as an individual's ability to engage in high-quality research. The only reference to teaching or coursework comes in the form of an anecdote by Wright (1985). the omission of references to education and professional socialization (excepting Wilkie 1980) is consistent with the explicit articulation of output concerns identified in discipline-oriented speeches.

The External Environment

During the decade and a half of ACR's existence a number of demographic, political, social, and economic events occurred that affected aggregate consumption patterns and produced new consumer trends--the Arab oil embargo, economic deregulation, maturing of the baby boom--to name a few. Noticeably absent from ACR Presidential addresses are references to such events. An exception is Pratt (1973) who discusses at length the specific macro-environmental circumstances that resulted in the need for an organization such as ACR--mass affluence, consumer power, and the informational needs generated by them. BeLk (1986) discusses the significance of considering consumption from a macro perspective, but does not refer to specific, concrete macro events. The general absence of concern with the macro environment is consistent with the lack of content on the Cosmopolitan pole of the ORGANIZATIONAL SCOPE dimension.


A study of ACR presidential addresses has identified certain recurring themes: the nature of the consumer behavior field as a distinct discipline; the relation of this discipline to other fields of research; the need to improve the quality of consumer research; the role of ACR in supporting the professional activities of its members; and the status and future of ACR as an organization.

The theme chosen by an individual ACR President is related to the value positions hat are implicitly articulated in the addresses and described in the quantitative analysis. A classification of speeches by thematic content closely resembles the classification by value positions as presented in the cluster analysis.

In addition to these dominant themes, common value positions among the speeches can be identified. The speeches collectively indicate little concern with the Value Neutral (of the VALUE ORIENTATION dimension), the Methodological (of the Scientific PROGRESS dimension), and Cosmopolitan (of the ORGANIZATIONAL SCOPE dimension) poles. In other words, the presidential addresses paid minimal attention to other institutions and external forces, did not view methodological improvements as the key route for the advancement of the field, and tended to articulate value positions.

The lack of attention to the Cosmopolitan pole may be explained by the dominant micro perspective of the discipline and the consequent failure to raise macro issues when formulating research questions--a concern raised by Belk (1986). Concern with the Theoretical, rather than Methodological pole of the SCIENTIFIC PROGRESS dimension, may reflect a concern with establishing the field as a separate discipline, apart from marketing and psychology. Concern with the theoretical framework can be expected within a field that is questioning its disciplinary boundaries. However, the focus on output of members, rather than concern with such inputs as training and organizational support, suggests an assumption that members are adequately trained in methodology and supported in carrying it out. The concern is that methodology be applied to well-constructed theories rather than developed for its own sake.

The lack of attention to the ORDER ORIENTATION dimension mirrors the cursory treatment given to public policy issues. It is somewhat surprising that references to this dimension are lacking. One might expect the social scientific branch of marketing to refer to the marketplace and its dynamics (which represents the quintessential structure of the Liberty pole) frequently. References to the marketplace are notably infrequent in ACR presidential speeches.

Finally, the considerable amount of Value Laden content may reflect cultural dynamics generated external to the discipline. Namenwirth found similarities in value-laden patterns among the three organizations that he studied. He interpreted this result as indicating that the agent of change was external to each of the fields and thus societal wide. A transition to Value Laden content may be occurring in other, older scientific organizations.

On the other hand, in this organization, the Value Laden content may reflect the normative expectations of these addresses: they are expected to be personal statements about the organization and the field, rather than scientific treatises (Gardner 1976 and Kassarjian 1977). Several ACR presidents tried to establish the uniqueness of their speeches with references to differences from the "usual pattern". Differences in subject matter and value profiles stem from the personal agendas, intellectual interests, and individual career histories. Thus, while presidential addresses are accorded special status as organizational documents, they remain personal statements reflecting the intersection between individual biography and organizational history.

However, even if ACR presidential addresses represent personal views, our analyses suggest commonality, as well as uniqueness. This commonality reflects the function of presidential addresses as ritual events in the lives of scientific organizations: they are solidarity-producing social situations (especially those delivered over lunch with the communion of food). Even when the content of the addresses discusses potentially divisive issues, the ritual context of the address provides conventional boundaries within which the dimensional polarities are addressed.

Further, where presidents use the address as a forum to push their pet ideas, they do not set up their viewpoint in contradistinction to some other one. The field of consumer research is increasingly polarized into two intellectual camps, although they do not correspond to the value-based and thematic clusters found in this analysis. The content of presidential addresses does not reflect this intellectual descensus, but portrays the field as more integrated than it actually is. No ACR president has suggested that the field embraces two opposing paradigms, although this division has been discussed in the literature (Anderson, 1986; Deshpande, 1983) and is widely recognized by centrally connected ACR members as fundamentally shaping the content of the ACR annual conference program. The neglect of this important issue in presidential addresses reflects their solidarity producing function.

The themes and value positions identified in this analysis reflect the organizational culture into which new ACR members are socialized, as well as existing agendas of experienced members. The analysis suggests that the organization is dedicated to improving research quality and developing a theoretical base that will move consumer behavior toward the recognition as an independent discipline. Those speeches not addressing research quality reflect a concern with serving the membership more effectively.

Both the field of consumer research and ACR are young but growing rapidly, and both have attracted talented researchers from a variety of disciplines. Unlike the organizations studied by Namenwirth, ACR combines interests of both academic and practitioner members, including those not directly involved with research. to the extent that central concerns and issues of the field are incorporated in presidential addresses, they merit continuing study by those who wish to understand and participate in the growth of both the organization and the consumer research discipline. Bettman (1987) in a recent editorial in the ACR Newsletter recommended research using a sociology of knowledge perspective to analyze the field of consumer research. This paper suggests some intellectual or ideational clusters characterizing the field. A logical extension of these findings would employ a sociology of knowledge perspective addressing the question of the social structural foundation of these intellectual clusters.



Anderson, Paul F. (1986), "On Method in Consumer Research: A Critical Relativist Perspective," Journal of Consumer Research, 13 (September), 155 - 173.

Bettman, James R. (1987), "President's Column," ACR Newsletter, (March), 2.

Deshspande, Rohit (1983), "'Paradigms Lost': On Theory and Method in Research in Marketing," Journal of Marketing, 47 (Fall), 101 - 111.

Kassarjian, Harold H. (1977), "Content Analysis in Consumer Research," Journal of Consumer Research, 4 (June), 99-118.

Namenwirth, J. Zvi (1987), "Values in American Science: Cultural Dynamics in Three Professional Societies Since 1900," in J. Zvi Namenwirth and Robert Philip Weber, Culture Dynamics, Winchester MA: Allen and Unwin.

Punj, Girish and David W. Stewart (1983), "Cluster Analysis in Marketing Research: Review and Suggestions for Application," Journal of Marketing Research, 20 (May), 134-148.



Susan Spiggle, The University of Connecticut
Cathy Goodwin, Georgia State University


NA - Advances in Consumer Research Volume 15 | 1988

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