Improving Civil Discourse: Speaking Is a More Civil Form of Discourse Than Writing

To improve civil discourse and “humanize” ideological opponents, is it better to speak or write? In two experiments (n=800), people reported preferring to write (vs. speak) to an opponent to diminish conflict. But six experiments with real interactions (n=2,350) suggest that speaking is more humanizing—and less conflict-ridden—than writing.


Juliana Schroeder (2019) ,"Improving Civil Discourse: Speaking Is a More Civil Form of Discourse Than Writing", in NA - Advances in Consumer Research Volume 47, eds. Rajesh Bagchi, Lauren Block, and Leonard Lee, Duluth, MN : Association for Consumer Research, Pages: 45-50.


Juliana Schroeder, University of California Berkeley, USA


NA - Advances in Consumer Research Volume 47 | 2019

Share Proceeding

Featured papers

See More


Contested and Confused: The Influence of Social Others in Disrupting Body Projects

Aphrodite Vlahos, University of Melbourne, Australia
Marcus Phipps, University of Melbourne, Australia

Read More


The Self-Bolstering Effects of Repeated Affirmations over Time

Alejandra Rodriguez, Oklahoma State University, USA
Ted Matherly, Oklahoma State University, USA

Read More


I6. How Does Runner’s World Shape a Runner’s World? Understanding Representations of the “Ideal” Female Body in Fitness Advertising

Carly Drake, University of Calgary, Canada
Scott Radford, University of Calgary, Canada

Read More

Engage with Us

Becoming an Association for Consumer Research member is simple. Membership in ACR is relatively inexpensive, but brings significant benefits to its members.