Pulling the White Rabbit Out of the Hat: Consuming Brands in Imperial China

We trace branding in China from the Song Dynasty (960-1127) to contemporary times. In many cases brands were developed by consumers or the government, instead of or in addition to the seller. This demonstrates a consumer initiated branding system that developed independently of brand management initiatives. The contention that multiple stakeholders define the brand in the marketplace challenges the conceptualization of brand management as a manager centered activity. Rather than assuming that managers define brands through marketing communication, the co-creative nature of brand development suggests that brands evolve in co-operative circles where successful brands align themselves with the consumers they seek to establish relationships with.


Giana Eckhardt and Anders Bengtsson (2007) ,"Pulling the White Rabbit Out of the Hat: Consuming Brands in Imperial China", in E - European Advances in Consumer Research Volume 8, eds. Stefania Borghini, Mary Ann McGrath, and Cele Otnes, Duluth, MN : Association for Consumer Research, Pages: 128-128.


Giana Eckhardt, Suffolk University, USA
Anders Bengtsson, Suffolk University, USA


E - European Advances in Consumer Research Volume 8 | 2007

Share Proceeding

Featured papers

See More


The Upside of Incompetence: How Discounting Luxury Affects Retailer Price Image

Karen Wallach, Emory University, USA
Ryan Hamilton, Emory University, USA
morgan k ward, Emory University, USA

Read More


Exiting Etsy? When Collaboration Among Market Co-Creators Come Undone

daiane scaraboto, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile
Eileen Fischer, York University, Canada

Read More


Willingness to Pay: A Contextualized Method of Valuation

Sharlene He, Concordia University, Canada
Eric T. Anderson, Northwestern University, USA
Derek Rucker, Northwestern University, USA

Read More

Engage with Us

Becoming an Association for Consumer Research member is simple. Membership in ACR is relatively inexpensive, but brings significant benefits to its members.