Pulling the White Rabbit Out of the Hat: Consuming Brands in Imperial China

We trace branding in China from the Song Dynasty (960-1127) to contemporary times. In many cases brands were developed by consumers or the government, instead of or in addition to the seller. This demonstrates a consumer initiated branding system that developed independently of brand management initiatives. The contention that multiple stakeholders define the brand in the marketplace challenges the conceptualization of brand management as a manager centered activity. Rather than assuming that managers define brands through marketing communication, the co-creative nature of brand development suggests that brands evolve in co-operative circles where successful brands align themselves with the consumers they seek to establish relationships with.


Giana Eckhardt and Anders Bengtsson (2007) ,"Pulling the White Rabbit Out of the Hat: Consuming Brands in Imperial China", in E - European Advances in Consumer Research Volume 8, eds. Stefania Borghini, Mary Ann McGrath, and Cele Otnes, Duluth, MN : Association for Consumer Research, Pages: 128-128.


Giana Eckhardt, Suffolk University, USA
Anders Bengtsson, Suffolk University, USA


E - European Advances in Consumer Research Volume 8 | 2007

Share Proceeding

Featured papers

See More


Snack Portion Size Choice, Expectations and Actual Experiences in Children: The Interplay of Healthiness, Hunger, and Sensory Food Imagery

Pierre Chandon, INSEAD, France
Celia Hachefa, System U
Yann Cornil, University of British Columbia, Canada
Sophie Nicklaus, Université Bourgogne Franche-Comté
Camille Schwartz, Université Bourgogne Franche-Comté
Christine Lange, Université Bourgogne Franche-Comté

Read More


Doing Worse by Doing Good: How Corporate Social Responsibility makes Products Less Dangerous

Linda Lemarié, University of Neuchâtel
Florent Girardin, University of Neuchâtel

Read More


Alternative Worldviews on Human – Nonhuman Relations: The Turkish Case

N. Alican Mecit, HEC Paris, France
tina m. lowrey, HEC Paris, France

Read More

Engage with Us

Becoming an Association for Consumer Research member is simple. Membership in ACR is relatively inexpensive, but brings significant benefits to its members.