Warmth, Wealth, and Wellbeing

A fundamental question in happiness research is whether improving every citizen’s wealth in a given society increases the overall happiness of the society. We distinguish between type A and type B outcomes. Type A outcomes, such as temperature, directly affect one’s visceral/biological system and are inherently evaluable; type B outcomes, such as jewelry, do not directly affect one’s visceral/biological system and are inherently inevaluable. Lab and field studies suggest that whether increasing a society’s wealth increases the society’s happiness depends on where the wealth is spent: Spending wealth on improving Type A outcomes does increase the overall happiness of the society, but spending wealth on improving Type B outcomes does not.


Christopher Hsee (2008) ,"Warmth, Wealth, and Wellbeing", in NA - Advances in Consumer Research Volume 35, eds. Angela Y. Lee and Dilip Soman, Duluth, MN : Association for Consumer Research, Pages: 72-75.


Christopher Hsee, University of Chicago


NA - Advances in Consumer Research Volume 35 | 2008

Share Proceeding

Featured papers

See More


H2. Influencing Consumer Response to Products with High Styling: The Role of Mindsets

Ying-Ching Lin, National Chengchi Uniersity, Taiwan
Angela Chang, Northeastern University, USA

Read More


Q8. Avatars, Consumers and Possession in Online Gaming

Feihong Hu, Lancaster University, UK
Xin Zhao, Lancaster University, UK
Chihling Liu, Lancaster University, UK

Read More


Pursue Your Passions: Cultural Discourses about Consumer’s Heroic Wilderness Adventures

Nathan Warren, University of Oregon, USA
Linda L Price, University of Oregon, USA

Read More

Engage with Us

Becoming an Association for Consumer Research member is simple. Membership in ACR is relatively inexpensive, but brings significant benefits to its members.