What You See Is What You Get: the Effects of Visual Metaphor on Consumer Response to Product Design

Building on Norman’s (2004) three-level model of how consumers respond to product design, we divide product design into three relatively independent design levels: visceral, behavioral, and reflective design. Drawing from McQuarrie and Mick’s (1999) research on visual rhetoric in advertising, and seeing product design as a form of persuasive communication, we posit that a visual metaphor increases the product’s persuasiveness via its effects on the three levels. Two experiments support these claims. Our paper is the first research that empirically tests Norman’s theory, which also extends McQuarrie and Mick’s work from advertising design to product design.


Xiaoyan Deng and Wes Hutchinson (2008) ,"What You See Is What You Get: the Effects of Visual Metaphor on Consumer Response to Product Design", in NA - Advances in Consumer Research Volume 35, eds. Angela Y. Lee and Dilip Soman, Duluth, MN : Association for Consumer Research, Pages: 142-145.


Xiaoyan Deng, University of Pennsylvania
Wes Hutchinson, University of Pennsylvania


NA - Advances in Consumer Research Volume 35 | 2008

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