Armed Only With Paper and Pencil: “Low-Tech” Measures of Implicit Attitudes

In the past 10 years there has been an explosion of interest in attitudes that is due, in no small part, to the development of implicit measures that are remarkably robust. In the present paper we discuss implicit measures that may be administered with nothing more than respondents, paper, and pencil. First we review the logic underlying the operation of these types of measures, and note similarities and differences with response-time based implicit measures. Then we review specific measures that have been used in attitude research, also touching on stereotyping and prejudice, and the self-concept.


Vargas Patrick, Sekaquaptewa Denise, and von Hippel William (2006) ,"Armed Only With Paper and Pencil: “Low-Tech” Measures of Implicit Attitudes", in AP - Asia-Pacific Advances in Consumer Research Volume 7, eds. Margaret Craig Lees, Teresa Davis, and Gary Gregory, Sydney, Australia : Association for Consumer Research, Pages: 411-413.


Vargas Patrick, University of Illinois, USA
Sekaquaptewa Denise, University of Michigan, USA
von Hippel William, UNSW, Australia


AP - Asia-Pacific Advances in Consumer Research Volume 7 | 2006

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