The Relation Between Postpurchase Evaluations and Consumption Experiences of Hedonic Products: a Case of Reading Fiction

ABSTRACT - A postpurchase evaluation of a hedonic product is affected by the emotions experienced while consuming it. This study examines this effect for works of fiction. The methodology used, entailed an interview in which respondents (n=15) were asked to indicate retrospectively for two positively and two negatively evaluated books, the extent to which twenty emotions were felt while reading it. The results indicated that positively evaluated books evoked more positive emotions than negatively evaluated books. The extent to which negative emotions were felt did not discriminate between negatively and positively evaluated ooks.



Citation:

Mia Stokmans (1998) ,"The Relation Between Postpurchase Evaluations and Consumption Experiences of Hedonic Products: a Case of Reading Fiction", in E - European Advances in Consumer Research Volume 3, eds. Basil G. Englis and Anna Olofsson, Provo, UT : Association for Consumer Research, Pages: 139-145.

European Advances in Consumer Research Volume 3, 1998      Pages 139-145

THE RELATION BETWEEN POSTPURCHASE EVALUATIONS AND CONSUMPTION EXPERIENCES OF HEDONIC PRODUCTS: A CASE OF READING FICTION

Mia Stokmans, Tilburg University, The Netherlands

ABSTRACT -

A postpurchase evaluation of a hedonic product is affected by the emotions experienced while consuming it. This study examines this effect for works of fiction. The methodology used, entailed an interview in which respondents (n=15) were asked to indicate retrospectively for two positively and two negatively evaluated books, the extent to which twenty emotions were felt while reading it. The results indicated that positively evaluated books evoked more positive emotions than negatively evaluated books. The extent to which negative emotions were felt did not discriminate between negatively and positively evaluated ooks.

INTRODUCTION

In the discipline of consumer behaviour consumers’ postpurchase behaviour is far less often object of study than prepurchase behaviour. This could suggest that postpurchase behaviour is not an important aspect of consumer behaviour. This is not the case. In the consumer’s perspective '...the goal of the consumer’s decision lies in consumption and consumption occurs during the postpurchase phase. Purchase is only a "means to an end", with the end being the attainment of benefits from consuming the product or service.’ (Wilkie, 1990: 614). During the postpurchase phase consumers evaluate the product they have purchased.

The postpurchase evaluation of a product is based on the consumption experiences attained when using the product. In this context two underlying evaluative criteria can be distinguished, namely utilitarian and hedonic appraisal (Westbrook, 1987; Oliver, 1992; Mano & Oliver, 1993). Utilitarian appraisal is related to the utilitarian performance of a product whereby one attends to the extent to which a product fulfils a useful function. For utilitarian appraisal the results of product use are important; by consuming a product functional benefits are derived that remove or avoid a particular problem (Holbrook & Hirschman, 1982; MacInnis & Jaworski, 1989). Contrary to utilitarian appraisal, hedonic appraisal is not based on the results of the consumption act but on the consumption act itself whereby attention is paid to the extent to which product use is pleasing (Holbrook & Hirschman, 1982).

Hedonic products, such as entertainment, the arts and leisure activities are bought for their hedonic consumption experiences. The consequences of consuming these products appear in the enjoyment that is offered and the resulting feelings of pleasure evoked when the product is used (Klinger, 1971). In the case of leisure activities, such as reading fiction, one does not perform the activity primarily to spend time, or to get informed, but because it is fun to experience it. Therefore, the postpurchase evaluation of a hedonic product will mainly be based on the hedonic appraisal of the consumption experience. The main research objective of this paper is to investigate the relation between the postpurchase evaluation of a hedonic product (in this case works of fiction) and the hedonic consumption experiences.

Hedonic consumption experiences can be described in terms of feelings evoked by the consumption of the product (Holbrook & Hirschman, 1982). In this paper the position is taken that not all feelings are relevant for the postpurchase evaluation of a hedonic product. Only those feelings that are attributed to the use of the product are relevant. Consequently, the feeling states of interest are restricted to emotions (Arnold, 1960; Clore et al, 1994). In the consumer behavioural literature, no prominent distinction is made between feelings and emotions [In for example Mano & Oliver (1993:451 note 1) no distinction is made between product-elected emotions, affect and feelings. They state that '..we will use product-elicited emotions, affect and feelings interchangeable, as no such distinction is prominent in consumer behaviour..'.] (Mano & Oliver, 1993). In explicating this distinction the concept emotion has to be defined and be differentiated from feelings.

Emotion

When focussing on emotion as an object of study, one should realize that there is no universally accepted approach nor definition of the concept (Strongman, 1987). There are theories that emphasise arousal, motivation or physiological mechanisms (i.e. Bindra, 1969), those that stress behaviour (i.e. Millenson, 1967), those that highlight cognition (i.e. Arnold, 1970; Lazarus, 1966), and those that combine a number of approaches (Pribram, 1970; Izard, 1977; Plutchik, 1994). In accordance with most consumer research [For example in advertising: Olney et al, 1991; MacInnis & Stayman, 1993; Batra & Stephens, 1994; in shopping behaviour: Dawson et al, 1990; Donovan et al, 1994 and in consumer satisfaction: Oliver, 1989; Mano & Oliver, 1993.] that focuses on emotion, a cognitive approach to emotion is taken. In most cognitive theories of emotion appraisal plays a significant roll. In these theories, appraisal refers to a process of cognitive evaluation, usually regarded as instantaneous (Strongman, 1987). As was stated already such an appraisal plays a crucial roll in the postpurchase evaluation of hedonic products.

Even within the cognitive approach no universally accepted definition of emotion is available. Some researches have even stated that emotion cannot be defined in classical terms, and that the best one can do is to specify the features that tend to occur in typical examples (Russel, 1991). If, on the other hand, one is able to specify the attributes emotions have in common, one has some working definition of emotion (Clore & Ortony, 1991). Research about what emotions have in common indicate that emotion terms refer to internal mental states that are focused primarily on affect (where affect refers simply to valence, the positive and negative aspects of things) (Ortony et al, 1987; Clore et al, 1994). Some terms are, according to this definition, not emotions because they do not refer primarily to internal metal states but to external conditions, such as abandoned, or refer to bodily states rather than mental states, as for example tired, or refer to nonstates rather than a state, as for example faithful. Other terms do refer to internal mental states but fail to be focussed primarily on affect. Confused, for example, refers to a cognitive state rather than an affective state (Clore et al, 1987).

The feeling state described thus far is one important feature of emotion. But not all feeling states are emotions. Moods, for example, are feeling states that are not emotions. A second feature of emotion is that emotion refers to how one feels in combination with what the feeling is about. Moods on the other hand refer to feeling states, which need not be about anything. In order to feel an emotion, the subject attributes the feeling state to an object or situation. The basic model is that an emotion results from ongoing, automatic, but implicit appraisal of a situation with respect to whether it is positive or negative for one’s goals and concerns (Arnold, 1960; Clore et al, 1994).

Summarizing, an emotion can be defined as an internal mental state that is focused primarily on affect and is caused by a cognitive evaluation or appraisal of a situation as positive or negative for one’s goals and concerns.

According to this definition not everything can evoke an emotion. In order to do so it has to be related to one’s goals and concerns. It has to be relevant to the subject. To what extent are hedonic products relevant to a consumer, so it can evoke emotions?

Hedonic products and emotions

For a lot of hedonic products subjects onlyconsume the emotional situation but are not part of it. For example in reading fiction or watching a movie one is absorbed by the story and thereby having an adventure. But the subject knows it is not real, it is only a story. The same counts for watching sport events. One is not part of the game, one only perceives it and one knows it is only a game. So to what extent are the feelings evoked by hedonic products, such as works of fiction, emotions?

Emotions are always evoked in a particular situation which is evaluated in the light of one’s concerns (Frijda, 1988). In the case of works of fiction, this means that the situation described should contain elements that are meaningful to the reader. The described situation in the book can be meaningful because it elicits cognitions about what the situation offers or withholds the subject in the situation, or cognitions about what actions are permitted or inhibited in the situation and evaluations of the attractiveness of the outcomes of the situation (Frijda, 1988).

Not every story will elicit these cognitions or evaluation. On the basis of Frijda’s emotion theory (1988) one can specify four characteristics of a story in order to be able to evoke emotions. First of all, the story should be relevant to the reader; it should appeal to important events (for the reader). In other words, the story should appeal to the reader’s goals and/or concerns. Secondly the reader should be absorbed by the story, it should appear as if the described events as well as the described reactions happen to the reader. The reader should experience the events described. The extent to which the described events are experienced, is probably affected by the content of the story (are the actions, thoughts and feelings described recognised by the reader?) as well as the way it is described. Thirdly, the story should be experienced as real. If a reader is thinking "this is not real, this is only a story" the emotional reaction are less intense (Koriat, et al, 1972). Besides the imagination of the reader, the theme of the book as well as the way it is written influences the extent to which the reader will perceive the story as real. Fourthly, the events in the story should be described clearly. If the story goes into many details and leaves little to the cognitive and imaginative abilities of the reader, the story can evoke a more intense emotional reaction.

Until now it is described what is meant by emotion as well as how hedonic products, such as works of fiction, can evoke emotions. Now the main research question about the relation between emotions evoked and the appraisal of the hedonic product (i.e. a work of fiction) can be answered.

Emotions and the postpurchase evaluation of a hedonic product

In the preceding it was argued that emotions are significant in the formation of a postpurchase evaluation of a hedonic product. In recent research (Mano & Oliver, 1993) a positive relationship between a positive postpurchase evaluation of a product and positive emotions and a negative relationship with negative emotions was found. This result was based on data gathered for products that differed in the extent to which they are utilitarian and hedonic. One can question whether this relation will also be true for mainly hedonic products such as works of fiction or entertainment in general. A lot of people regard it pleasurable to be terrified while viewing a horror film or reading a horror book. This general observation can be explained if one takes the consumption purpose of these hedonic products into account. In the case of hedonic products, such as reading fiction, one priarily consumes the product for the emotions it elicits. If the product is able to evoke these (positive or negative) emotions, the product fulfils its main function and is evaluated positively. When reading a horror story one wants to be terrified, when one does not like to be terrified one simple chooses another kind of book.

Parallel to the results reported in the Mano and Oliver (1993) study, it is suggested that all positive emotions evoked by reading fiction have a positive effect on the postpurchase evaluation of the book. The relation between the postpurchase evaluation of the book and the negative emotions evoked by reading it is influenced by two groups of negative emotions: those sought for and those experienced unwillingly. If the reader wants to experience the negative emotions evoked by reading the book, a positive relation is expected between the postpurchase evaluation of the book and the extent to which these negative emotions are felt. There are also negative emotions that are unwillingly experienced, for example if one becomes irritated, because the story is not well written or disappointed because the story is too tedious. These negative emotions have a negative effect on the postpurchase evaluation. On the basis of the emotion words themselves it is hard to discriminate between these two groups of negative emotions. The same negative emotion can be sought for or experienced unwillingly. Therefore, it is suggested that the extent to which negative emotions are felt does not discriminate between positively and negatively evaluated works of fiction.

The preceding can be summarized in the following hypothesis:

H1a: Positively evaluated works of fictions evoke more positive emotions while reading than negatively evaluated works of fiction.

H1b: There is no difference between positively and negatively evaluated works of fiction in the extent to which negative emotions are felt.

Works of fiction is a rather heterogeneous product category regarding the kind of emotions experienced while reading it. One can question whether the same sets of emotions are evoked when reading any kind of fiction. When reading a detective novel for example one expects that the story is exciting or thrilling rather than a romantic adventure. This does not mean that no romantic episodes may occur in a detective novel, but it should not mainly consist of such episodes. In that case the book is not categorized as a detective novel but as some kind of romantic novel. In this study only global genres will be distinguished and it is hypothesized that:

H2: Genres differ in the sets of emotions evoked.

The global genres distinguished in this study follow the distinction often made in the (Dutch) book market. As in theory of literature, a distinction is made betweenliterature and not literature. A clear universally accepted distinction between literature and not literature is not available. Overall one agrees that a main characteristic of literature unlike not literature is it’s highly complex organization of a stratified character with multiple meanings and relationships (Wellek & Warren, 1974). Compared with not literature the interpretation of literature is much more variable, because a literary text has often multiple contexts and meanings (Halasz, 1992). This description of literature makes no restrictions of the kind of themes describes, consequently all kind of emotions may be experienced

TABLE 1

THE KIND OF NOVELS INCLUDED IN THE RESEARCH

In the book market, the category not literature is often divided into two genres, namely romantic novels (such as regional novels) and mystery novels (such as detective novels), while the category literature is typically not differentiated. Consequently three genres are distinguished in this study, namely literature (in contrast with not literature), romantic novels and mystery novels.

METHOD

The hypotheses formulated in the previous paragraph are not theoretically well founded, but based on inferences made by the author on the basis of theories about emotions in the light of reading fiction. Therefore, the research reported is more an exploratory research in which some tentative hypotheses are tested rather than an empirical test of these hypotheses. In this research respondents were asked to indicate retrospectively what emotions were experienced when they read works of fiction.

Respondents

Respondents (n=15) who participated in this research were a convenience sample of people who read a lot (average 1.9 books a month). The sample consisted of eleven women and only four men, who were rather highly educated. Their average age was about 31 years.

The research was restricted to respondents who read a lot because respondents were asked retrospectively, for four different books, to indicate what emotions were experienced while reading it. Consequently, all four books should be finished recently so the respondent could remember what emotions were felt.

Design and procedure

The books about which the respondent should indicate the emotions experienced were put forward by the respondent him/herself and not by the researcher. This strategy was adopted because it is very difficult to identify a book that is evaluated very positively of negatively by a reader one does not know. According to the theory presented, the postpurchase evaluation of a work offiction is affected by the emotions experienced while reading it. Emotions can only be evoked if the story meets the four requirements mentioned. The requirement that is most difficult to meet is the one that the story should be relevant to the reader. Most books selected by a researcher to be evaluated by an unknown respondent are probably not relevant to the respondent and therewith not able to evoke intense emotions. In order to have a balanced set of books with positive and negative postpurchase evaluations each respondent was asked to identify four recently read books of which two were evaluated positively and two negatively.

The four books put forward by each respondent should meet three additional criteria. Firstly, they should all be works of fiction. Secondly, they should be read recently (less than one year ago). Thirdly, the four books should be exemplars of two genres; two books from each genre. The genre to which a book belongs, was based on the NUGI-code [NUGI is the abbreviation for 'Nederlands Universele Genre Indeling' (universal Dutch genre classification).] attached to the work of fiction by the publisher. For each pair of books belonging to the same genre one of them should be evaluated negatively and the other positively. Table 1 indicates the number of books that belong to a specific genre (literature, romantic novels or mystery novels).

Each respondent was interviewed at their homes. After the purpose of the research was made clear and the respondent had selected his/her four titles, the respondent was asked to give a summary of the content of the first book. By means of this summary (emotional) memories about the book were recalled.

After the summary was given, the respondent was asked about the emotions experienced while reading that specific book. The emotions evoked by the book were asked for by means of a written questionnaire. The questionnaire contained 20 emotion words (see also Table 5). The extent to which an emotion was experienced could be indicated on a five-point scale, with as extremes: absolutely not experienced and experienced to a large extent. This procedure was repeated for each of the four books.

RESULTS

In the introduction some tentative hypotheses were formulated regarding the relation between the postpurchase evaluation of the book and the emotions experienced while reading it (H1) and differences between genres in emotions experienced (H2). Both hypotheses will be examined successively.

Relation between the postpurchase evaluation of the book and the emotions experienced

The first hypothesis stated, regards the extent to which positive and negative emotions were experienced while reading a work of fiction. In order to test this hypothesis two indices were created; one to indicate the extent to which negative emotions were felt, and one to indicate the extent to which positive emotions were felt. Of the twenty emotion words included in the questionnaire, thirteen had a negative valence and seven a positive valence. The Chonbach’s alpha of the negative emotion words is 0.89 and of the positive emotion words it is also 0.89. Terefore the scores on the negative and the scores on the positive emotion words were averaged per book to come to the extent negative and positive emotions were experienced while reading the book.

TABLE 2

THE AVERAGE EXTENT TO WHICH EMOTIONS WERE FELT (STANDARD DEVIATION IN BRACKETS)

TABLE 3

STRESS VALUES OF THE WEIGHTED MDS SOLUTIONS

The first hypothesis to be tested stated that positively evaluated books evoked more intense positive emotions than negatively evaluated books (H1a), and that there is no difference between positively and negatively evaluated books in the extent to which negative emotions are felt while reading (H1b). Table 2 indicates for negatively and positively evaluated books separately the average extent to which negative and positive emotions were felt.

A t-test indicated that there is no difference between negatively and positively evaluated books in the extent to which negative emotions were felt (t=-.60, df=58, p>0.05). On the other hand positively evaluated books generated more positive emotions than negatively evaluated books (t=7.53, df=52.18 p<0.05). These results confirmed the hypothesis stated.

To what extent differ genres in emotions evoked?

The second hypothesis suggested that different genres, namely literature, romantic novels and mystery novels, generated different sets of emotions. In other words, the co-occurrence of emotions felt may differ between genres. In order to investigate this suggestion, a weighted MDS-analysis was performed. In this kind of multidimensional scaling procedure differences between genres in the set of emotions felt can be taken into account. Each genre is represented by a matrix (Euclidean measure) constructed on the basis of the co-occurence of the emotions reported. Weighted MDS simultaneously analyses the three matrices (one of each genre) developed in this way. The analysis results in a stimulus configuration that indicates which emotions co-occur while reading fiction (literature, romantic novels as well as mystery novels). Differences between genres in emotions experienced, are derived from the 'subjects weights’. Before going into differences between the genres the dimensionality of the stimulus configuration should be determined.

Table 3 indicates the stress values (Kruskal’s stress formula 1) for the different configurations asked for. This table indicates that the stress value increases slowly when the dimensionality of the configuration is decreased from five to three dimensions. The stress value increases largely when the dimensionality of the configuration is reduced from three to two dimensions. Consequently, we will focus on the three-dimensional solution. In the three-dimensional solution the stress value is 0.188 on average. According to Kruskal (1964) this level of stress indicates a rather poor fit. On the other hand, the proportion of variance in the data accounted for by the three-dimensional mapping is 0.74 on average (0.82 for literature, 0.73 for mystery novels, and 0.66 for romantic novels), which indicates a satisfactory fit. The emotions evoked by each of the three genres are properly accounted for in the three-dimensional solution because for each genre the stress value as well as the proportion of the variance accounted for is appropriate. Only romantic novels fit not so well compared to literature and mystery novels.

Differences between the genres can be derived from the 'subjects weights’ which are given in Table 4. These weights can be viewed as the importance of a dimension of the stimulus configuration for a particular genre. Table 4 indicates that the first dimension of the stimulus configuration is the most important one for all genres. The second and third dimension are of less importance for both literature and romantic books. For mystery novels the second and third dimension are almost as important as the first dimension. So this analysis indicates that there are some differences between the genres in the co-occurences of emotions evoked.

The genres that evoke the most similar set of emotions can also be derived. The weights represent the end of a vector directed from the origin (MacCallum, 1977; Takane et al, 1977). The cosine of the angle between two vectors can be interpreted as a correlation coefficient. The cosine of the angles between the vectors of literature and mystery novels, and literature and romantic novels are respectively 0.56 and 0.20. The cosine of the angle between the vectors of mystery novels and romantic novels is 0.85. So the set of emotions evoked by reading literature differs from those evoked by reading mystery or romantic novels, while the emotions evoked by mystery and romantic novels are most similar.

TABLE 4

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN GENRES EXPRESSED IN 'SUBJECTS WEIGHTS'

Now an important question becomes, what emotions are more typical for literature compared to romantic and mystery novels. In order to identify sets of emotions that are more or less typical for a specific genre, emotions must load highly on only one dimension of the stimulus configuration. In the resulting stimulus configuration which is given in Table 5 this is clearly not the case. This problem cannot be solved by rotating the stimulus configuration, because one is not allowed to do so without violating the basic definition of the Weighted MDS-model (Kroonenberg, 1983; Norusis, 1994). On the basis of this stimulus configuration we are unable to determine what emotions are most typical for what genre.

The results of the weighted multidimensional scaling clearly illustrate that there are differences in emotions evoked when reading different genres, but it is very difficult to uncover what set of emotions is typical for a particular genre.

DISCUSSION

In this paper it was claimed that the postpurchase evaluation of a hedonic product, such as works of fiction, is based mainly on the hedonic appraisal of the consumption experience. In order to investigate this claim the emotions experienced while reading the book were asked for. According to the definition of emotion adopted, emotions refer to feeling states experienced during consumption which are attributed to the consumption of the product, and not to some other component of the consumer’s situation. In our opinion one should ask for emotions and not just for any feeling state when studying hedonic consumption experiences in relation to postpurchase evaluations, because only the feeling states attributed to the use of the product will affect the relation between postpurchase evaluation and hedonic consumption experience of the product.

The definition of emotion adopted also indicates that internal states that are primarily physical or bodily are not emotions. This restriction of emotion is not commonly acepted. A lot of research takes the perspective that emotions can be described in terms of two dimensions, namely pleasantness-unpleasantness and arousal-quietness (Russel, 1980; Olney et al, 1991; Mano & Oliver, 1993). According to our definition the dimension referring to arousal states, does not represent emotions, because arousal is mainly a physical, bodily state and not a mental affective state (Clore et al, 1987).

Parallel to the tentative hypothesis formulated, the results indicated that positively evaluated works of fiction evoked more positive emotions than negatively evaluated works of fiction. On the other hand, negatively and positively evaluated books did not differ in the extent negative emotions were felt. These results were indicated be means of a t-test between groups (positively and negatively evaluated books). Strictly speaking this t-test is not appropriate, because each respondent provided data for two negatively as well as two positively evaluated books. Consequently, the two groups of books are not statistically independent as a result of which the number of degrees of freedom were overestimated. A t-test pairs is even less appropriate than a t-test groups, because the pairs of books belonging to one genre are two different books, each with it’s own theme ECT. Consequence these pairs will differ largely in emotions evoked irrespectively of the postpurchase evaluation.

Furthermore it was suggested that genres differ in the set of emotions evoked. This question is about differences in co-occurrence of emotions while reading specific genres. This question was investigated by means of weighted multidimensional scaling. This technique is a generalization of the Euclidean distance model so that several co-occurence (similarity) matrices could be assumed to differ from each other in systematically nonlinear or nonmonotonic ways (Norusis, 1994). So weighted multidimensional scaling can account for differences between the sets of emotions evoked by different genres while factor analysis, which is commonly used to inspect emotions structures (Russel, 1980; Frijda, 1988), cannot. [In three mode factor analysis it is also possible to take differences between stimuli into account (Tucker, 1972; Kroonenberg, 1983). This extension of factor analysis is, as far as we know, not included in a standard statistical package, while weighted multidimensional scaling is.] The weighted multidimensional scaling indicated that the genres differed in the emotions evoked. What emotions were typical for what genre could not be determined on the basis of the analysis and needs further research.

As was mentioned already, the study reported is more an exploratory research than an empirical test of the hypotheses formulated. The hypotheses formulated are based on inferences made by the author on the basis of theories about emotions in the light of reading fiction. The exploratory character of the study also accounts for the small convenience sample of heavy readers. The respondents indicated to read on average about two books a month. In the Netherlands only 37% of the population reads more than two books a month (Intomart: TBO-1996). Of those people in the Dutch population how read that much, 65% are women. In the sample 73% of the respondents were women. The average age of people in the Dutch population who read that much is 39.5 (s.d.= 16.03), while the average age of the sample was 31.1 (s.d. 13.14). So, the convenience sample is not representative for reading habits of the Dutch population. On the other hand, the sample approximates the heavy readers surprisingly well for such a small sample. Still, further research in needed to examine the generalisability of the results reported in this study.

TABLE 5

COORDINATES OF THE EMOTIONS

In future research one should pay special attention to the procedure to measure the emotions experienced while reading. In this study the emotions experienced were asked for retrospectively. In order to reduce the effect of memory, the respondents were asked to give a summary of the book. But to what extent was the summary equally well for positively and negatively evaluated books? There are some indications that the use of a product which evoked strong emotions is remembered better. To what extent this is the case should be explored theoretically as well as empirically.

REFERENCES

Arnold, M.B. (1960), Emotion and personality, New York: Columbia University Press.

Batra, R. and D. Stephens (1994), Attitudinal effects of ad-evoked moods and emotions: The moderating role of motivation, Psycholgy and Marketing, 11, 199-215.

Bindra, D. (1969), An unified interpretation of emotion and motivation, Annual New York Academy of Science, 159, 1071-1083.

Clore, G.L. and A. Ortony (1991), What more is there to emotion concepts that prototypes, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 48-50.

Clore, G.L., A. Ortony, and M.A. Foss (1987), The psychological foundations of the affective lexicon, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53 (4), 751-766.

Clore, G.L., N. Scharz, and M. Conway (1994), Affective causes and consequences of social information processing, in Handbook of social cognition, ed. R.S. Wyer, Jr., and T.K. Srull, Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associations, Publishers, 323-417.

Donovan, R.J., J.R. Rossiter, G. Marcoolyn, and A. Nesdale (1994), Store atmosphere and purchasing behavior, Journal of Retailing, 70, 283-294.

Dawson, S., P.H. Bloch, and N.M. Ridgway (1990), Shopping motives, emotional states, and retail outcomes, Journal of Retailing, 66, 408-427.

Frijda, N.H. (1988), De emoties: Een overzicht van onderzoek en theorie, Amsterdam: Bert Bakker.

Halasz, L. (1992), Self-relevant reading in literary understanding, in Reader responses to literature; The empirical dimension, ed. E.F. Nardocchio, New York: Mouton de Guyter.

Holbrook, M.B. and E.C. Hirschman (1982), The experiential aspects of consumption: Consumer fantasies, feelings, and fun, Journal of Consumer Research, 9, 132-140.

Izard, C.E. (1977), Human emotions, New York: Plemum

Lazarus, R.S. (1966), Psychological stress and the coping process, New York: McGraw-Hill.

Klinger, E. (1971), Structure and functions of fantasy, New York: Wiley-Interscience.

Koriat, A, R. Melkman, J.R. Averill, and R.S. Lazarus (1972), The self-control of emotional reactions to a stressful film, Journal of Personality, 40, 601-619.

Kroonenberg, P.M. (1983), Three-mode principal component analysis, Leiden: DSWO Press.

Kruskal, J.B. (1964), Nonmetric multidimensional scaling, Psychometrika, 29, 1-27.

MacCallum, R.C. (1977), Effects of conditionality on INDSCAL and ALSCAL weights, Psychometrika, 42, 297-305.

MacInnis, D.J. and B.J. Jaworski (1989), Information processing from advertisements: Toward an integrative framework, Journal of Marketing, 53, 1-23.

MacInnis, D.J. and D.M. Stayman (1993), Focal and emotional integration: Constructs, measures, and preliminary evidence, Journal of Advertising, 22, 51-66.

Mano, H. and R.L. Oliver (1993), Assessing the dimensionality and structure of the consumption experience: Evaluation, feeling, and satisfaction, Journal of Consumer Research, 20, 451-466.

Millenson, J.R. (1967), Principles of behavioral analysis, New York: MacMillian.

Norusis, M.J. (1994), SPSS Professional Statistics, Chicago: SPSS Inc.

Olivier, R.L. (1989), Processing of the satisfaction response in consumption: A suggested framework and research propositions, Journal of Consumer Stisfaction, Dissatisfaction and Complaining Behavior, 2, 1-6.

Oliver, R.L. (1992 ), An investigation of the attribute basis of emotion and related affects in consumption: Suggestions for a stage-specific satisfaction framework, in Advances of Consumer Research, Vol 19, ed. J.F. Sherry, Jr. and B. Sternhal, Provo UT: Assosiation for Consumer Research, 237-244.

Olney, T.J., M.B. Holbrook, and R. Batra (1991), Consumer responses to advertising: The effects of ad content, emotions, and attitude toward the ad on viewing time, Journal of Consumer Research, 17, 440-453.

Ortony, A., G.L. Clore, and M. Foss (1987), The referential structure of the affective lexicon, Cognitive Science, 11, 361-384.

Russel, J.A. (1980), A circumplex model of affect, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39, 1161-1178.

Russel J.A. (1991), In defense of a prototype approach to emotion concepts, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 37-47.

Strongman, K.T. (1987), The psychology of emotion, New York: Wiley.

Takane, Y. , F.W. Young, and J. De Leeuw (1977), Nonmetric individual difference multidimensional scaling: An alternating least squares method with optimal scaling features, Psychometrika, 42, 7-67.

Tucker, L.R. (1972), Relations between multidimensional scaling and three-mode factor analysis, Psychometrika, 37, 3-27.

Plutchik, R. (1994), The psychology and biology of emotion, New York: HarperCollins College Plubishers.

Pribram, K.H. (1970), Feelings and monitors, in Feelings and emotions: The Loyola Sympisium, ed. M.B. Arnold, New York: Academic Press, 41-53.

Wellek, R. and A. Warren, (1974), Theory of Literature, New York: Penguin Books.

Westbrook, R.A. (1987), Product/consumption-based affective responses and postpurchase processes, Journal of Marketing Research, 24, 258-270.

Wilkie, W.L. (1990), Consumer behavior, New York: John Wiley & Sons.

----------------------------------------

Authors

Mia Stokmans, Tilburg University, The Netherlands



Volume

E - European Advances in Consumer Research Volume 3 | 1998



Share Proceeding

Featured papers

See More

Featured

Dancing with Commercialism: Emphasizing Dramatism to Persuade

Yuxin Bai, Lancaster University, UK
Xin Zhao, Lancaster University, UK
Hayley Cocker, Lancaster University, UK

Read More

Featured

A Beautiful MIN(D): The Multiple-Identity Network as a Framework for Integrating Identity-Based Consumer Behavior

Julian K Saint Clair, Loyola Marymount University, USA

Read More

Featured

Product Transparency in Online Selling Mechanisms: Consumer Preference for Opaque Products

Lucas Stich, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich
Martin Spann, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich
Gerald Häubl, University of Alberta, Canada

Read More

Engage with Us

Becoming an Association for Consumer Research member is simple. Membership in ACR is relatively inexpensive, but brings significant benefits to its members.