Localize Or Standardize in Advertising? Chinese Consumers’ Point of View

ABSTRACT - Though the issue on standardization of advertising is no loner a new issue, much research have been done concerning the consumers’ point of view. As many multinationals are planning to enter the Chinese markets, a question on whether they should standardize or localize their advertising strategy becomes a major issue. Therefore, this research project intends to compare the advertising responses of Chinese consumers towards local andforeign advertising. A significant difference in consumer attitude is found towards local and foreign advertisements. Chinese consumers in general prefer local-made ads than foreign-made ads and find local-made ads more interesting and not irritating. Chinese consumers also prefer transformational rather than informational advertising especially if the ad is foreign-made. Since television advertising is a form of entertainment for the Chinese consumers, they prefer viewing visual imagery rather than receiving detailed information. In general, the results show that food products and foreign-made transformational advertising, especially for more familiar American brands, are more easily to be transferred directly to the Chinese markets.



Citation:

Susan Tai and Jae Pae (2001) ,"Localize Or Standardize in Advertising? Chinese Consumers’ Point of View", in AP - Asia Pacific Advances in Consumer Research Volume 4, eds. Paula M. Tidwell and Thomas E. Muller, Provo, UT : Association for Consumer Research, Pages: 210-216.

Asia Pacific Advances in Consumer Research Volume 4, 2001      Pages 210-216

LOCALIZE OR STANDARDIZE IN ADVERTISING? CHINESE CONSUMERS’ POINT OF VIEW

Susan Tai, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong

Jae Pae, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong

[The work described in this paper was substantially supported by a grant from the Research Grants Council of the Hong Kon Special Administration Region (Project No. G-S542).]

ABSTRACT -

Though the issue on standardization of advertising is no loner a new issue, much research have been done concerning the consumers’ point of view. As many multinationals are planning to enter the Chinese markets, a question on whether they should standardize or localize their advertising strategy becomes a major issue. Therefore, this research project intends to compare the advertising responses of Chinese consumers towards local andforeign advertising. A significant difference in consumer attitude is found towards local and foreign advertisements. Chinese consumers in general prefer local-made ads than foreign-made ads and find local-made ads more interesting and not irritating. Chinese consumers also prefer transformational rather than informational advertising especially if the ad is foreign-made. Since television advertising is a form of entertainment for the Chinese consumers, they prefer viewing visual imagery rather than receiving detailed information. In general, the results show that food products and foreign-made transformational advertising, especially for more familiar American brands, are more easily to be transferred directly to the Chinese markets.

INTRODUCTION

Global advertising has been a topic in international advertising for more than twenty years. Recently, many foreign companies have increasingly considered the use of regional advertising campaigns in AsiaBa trend that is apparently in contrast to the move toward country-specific campaigns in the late 1980s. A number of factors are behind the shift, with cost being the most often cited reason. Another consideration is that centrally produced advertisements can guarantee a certain standard of quality in markets where expertise is lacking. There is also the shift toward more centralized management of regional operations among certain firms. Regional advertising makes most sense for companies that offer a product with the same benefits around the world, such as Coca-Cola (Anonymous 1993).

Other companies, however, have decided to launch global campaigns instead. For example, Levi-Strauss, Nike, Adidas and Burger King have managed their global advertising campaign successfully in Asia (Adweek 1997 and Campaign-London 1997). The globalization of advertising campaigns implies a high level of standardization but it often does not fit optimally with the cultures. Some experienced multinational marketers like Uniliver, Gillette and Nestle realized that it is more important for their brand advertising to elicit the same response from consumers across cultures much more than running the same advertising campaign across markets. It may be possible to use the same brand-advertising concept but the executions must be customized to fit local environments (Banerjee 1994).

Van Raaij (1997) identified four levels of standardization: mission, proposition, concept and execution. At each level, identical or different elements may be employed across cultures. This results in global, adaptation, differentiation, and local communication strategies. Quelch and Hoff (1986) suggested a continuum of decision framework used in advertising where a global approach can fall anywhere on a spectrum from tight agreement on an advertising concept to loose agreement on advertising details. That translates into two basic decision frameworks central to advertising planning: strategy and execution. Executions can be operated with three levels of adaptation. Firstly, they can be run the same everywhere, which usually demands a non-verbal presentation and emphasis more on visuals and music. Secondly, the execution can be translated from one language to another, and finally, executional differences can be designed to reflect the culture of the local community. That is, a theme remains constant, but the executions are different from one country to another (Eger 1987).

According to Mooij (1997), many advertisers perceived wrongly that advertising concepts based on strong image cues are able to cross borders more easily than campaigns based on verbal messages. They also perceived wrongly that advertising themes could be standardized while only the execution may need adaptation. However, even when an advertisement’s buying proposal can be standardized due to similar expectations of products, culture differences will make it difficut to standardize an advertisement’s creative execution style. Cultural values are reflected both in advertising themes and in the execution. The core problem in global advertising is the culture match between the values in the advertising message and the values of the receiver (Mooij 1997). Therefore, international advertisers must understand the differences in learning and thinking patterns of each market because they influence the way people will process information and respond to advertising.

Though the issue on standardization of advertising is no longer a new issue, but no research has been done concerning the consumers’ point of view except some cross-cultural lifestyle studies. As many multinationals are planning to enter the China market, a question on whether they should standardize or localize their advertising approach becomes a major issue. The major objective of this research intends to compare the advertising responses of Chinese consumers towards local and foreign advertising.

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

It has been assumed by many marketing academics that characteristics of the communicator or source play an important role in determining the impact of an advertising message. Accordingly, a good deal of research attention in advertising has focused on the credibility of the individual spokesperson or endorser. The term "source credibility" is often used to refer to attributes of the communicator including expertise, trustworthiness, attractiveness, and power. In this research, the source factor is not identified as the communicator, but rather the communicator is defined as the country-of-origin of the brand, the product type, the place of production (foreign/local ads) and the creative executive style of the ad. All these variables may influence the advertising effects on the Chinese consumers.

Product Type: Food versus Non-food Advertising

Product type is an obvious reason to influence the extent of advertising standardization adopted in the Asian market. Food products emphasize the "world brand image" and therefore, a more standardized approach is usually adopted in Asia and they are therefore no more considered as culture bound products. Rather, hi-tech products such as electronics and hi-touch products such as fashion are more likely to adopt a differentiated approach in Asia (Mooij 1997).

Country-of-origin of the Brands: American versus European Brands

The attitude of target segment toward country-of-origin of imported products is also a determining factor. If the consumers have a favourable attitude towards the country-of-origin of the brand, a more standardized strategy can be adopted as the consumers have more confidence on those brands. Chinese consumers in Hong Kong perceive American products as prestigious, Japanese products innovative and European products are struck in the middle and do not have a clear image in the mind of the consumers (Siu and Chan 1997). Past studies have showed that new products or brands are easier to standardize than mature products. However, European brands are more likely to adopt a regional strategy in Asia (Tai 1997).

Creative Executive Styles: Transformational versus Informational Advertising

Advertising styles reflect the communication styles of cultures and cultures vary with respect to the use of verbal and visual styles. For example, Japanese ads have been found to contain more emotional and fewer comparative appeals than American ads (Hong and Muderrisoglu 1987). Advertising in China has been found to contain more utilitarian appeals that focus on state of being and promisea better life (Tse et al. 1989) than western cultures. Chinese consumers belong to high-context cultures which are characterized by the use of symbolism or indirect verbal expression (Zandpour, 1992).

Chinese people have extensive information networks among family, friends, colleagues, and clients and are involved in close relationships with each other. Low-context cultures such as Americans or Europeans do not have extensive information networks, and they therefore require a great deal of detailed information from other sources. High-context cultures tend to become impatient or irritated when people from low-context cultures give them information they don’t need because they already know it through their network. People from low-context cultures are at a loss when high-context culture people do not provide enough information.

With respect to advertising, high-context cultures can be recognized by the use of indirect communication using less information and more visual cues. Styles of collectivist cultures show a dependency and trust-generating orientation, indirect speech acts, and contextual (role-oriented). However, low-context communication cultures tend to use more information and less visual cues. Styles of individualist cultures include control, confrontation, problem solving and direct address of the public.

Transformational advertising uses a selling premise based on the pull of associations. If the associative values are universal, transformational strategies can be used cross-culturally. Informational advertising, however, is more often localised because the level of information depends on the educational level, stage of product life cycle of the brand and context of the cultures.

METHODOLOGY

Formulation of Hypothesis

H1: AChinese consumers have more favourable attitudes towards local advertising than toward foreign advertising."

H2:  "Chinese consumers have more favourable attitudes towards local advertising for transformational ads than for informational ads."

H3: AChinese consumers have more favourable attitudes towards local advertising for American Brands (more familiar brands) than for European brands (less familiar brands)."

H4: AChinese consumers have more favourable attitudes towards local advertising for food products than non-food products."

Experimental Ads

The experimental ads will be divided into two major product categories (food and non-food products that consist of personal care, fashion merchandise and home electronics); two country-of-origins (American and European) , local-made or foreign-made ads and two creative execution styles (informational and transformational). Experimental stimuli will be actual TV commercials that had been video taped between 1994 and 1995. The reason for choosing the commercials off the air for four years prior to the experiment is to reduce the memory of the consumers. Commercials will be selected by the personal judgement of the researchers.

The sixteen pairs of commercials had been be selected based on their manifest ability to elicit varying levels of affect (transformational versus informational), place of production, product nature, country-of-origin and creative styles. The breakdowns of the commercials according to the country-of-origin of the brands and plac of productions are summarized as follows:

    Across product categories:

        food:     7 pairs

        Non-food (personal-care, electronics and fashion)    9 pairs

    Creative Execution Styles:

        Transformational ads      =22

        Informational ads      =10

The use of actual TV commercials renders this study strictly correlational rather than experimental. That is, affect is merely measured rather than manipulated, it cannot be known for certain whether it is affect or some unmeasured message property that is responsible for any observed effects. The alternative is to construct hypothetical ads that vary only with respect to affect valence and intensity. This overcomes the problem noted above but creates another problem because experimentally constructed ads often are sterile, unrealistic, and typically limited to print versions.

Some internal validity has been relinquished in order to test real commercials rather than hypothetical print advertisements. The advantage to this approach is that it better mirrors the actual role advertising affect, which is restricted primarily to instances of low involvement information processing where receivers focus more upon the peripheral, non-argument aspects of messages rather than engaged in detailed, thoughtful processing of central message arguments. Because television is known to be a relatively low-involving media in comparison to print media, it is useful, if not critical, those TV commercials are used for testing the role of advertising affect (Gresham and Shimp 1985).

Subjects were 308 MBA students of both sexes in several universities in Hong Kong. Subjects volunteered to attend one of the 20-minute sessions. As there is no reason to suspect that subjects’ choices of sessions were biased, this procedure is assumed to have produced a random assignment of subjects to groups. Each experimental group were exposed to one pair of commercials from the pool of 16. The subjects were exposed to three repetitions of each commercial so that, pursuant to Krugman’s (1972) argument, the commercials might attain their optimal impact. Subjects, after reviewing the ads, were required to respond to a series of multi-item measures of their cognitive structures related to the ad, their affect-based attitudes toward ad, their attitudes toward the advertised brand, their cognitive structures related to the advertised brand and their intention to purchase the brand.

TABLE 1

EFFECTS ON ATTITUDE TOWARD ADVERTISING, BRAND AND PURCHASE INTENTION: LOCAL ADVERTISING VERSUS FOREIGN ADVERTISING (N=308)

Questionnaire Design

The questionnaire consisted of three parts: attitude toward advertising, attitude toward brand and purchase intention. Attitude toward advertising was measured by the means of four seven-point evaluative scales (bad/good, dislike, like, irritating/not irritating and uninteresting/interesting). These four scales were used to measure attitude toward advertising and are consistent with past studies (Gardner 1985; Mitchll and Olson 1981).

Following the study by Mitchell and Olson (1981), "Attitude toward brand" was measured by the means of four seven-point evaluative scales (bad/good, dislike very much/like very much, unpleasant/pleasant and poor quality/high quality). "Purchase intention" toward each brand was measured by a single seven-point bipolar scale by the phrase "not likely to buy" and "very likely to buy".

RESEARCH FINDINGS

Effects on Attitude towards Advertising, Brand and Purchase Intention:

(1) Comparison between Local and Foreign-made Ads

There is a significant difference in consumer’s attitude toward advertising, the brand and purchase intention between foreign and local-made advertising. In general, Chinese consumers find local advertising more interesting (3.88 versus 3.65) and not irritating (4.09 versus 3.75). They prefer local-made ads (4.00) than foreign ads (3.72). (Table 1)

Consumers also have significantly better attitude toward the brand for local advertising (4.39) than foreign advertising (4.10). They accept the brand using local ads and perceive it having higher quality than those using foreign-made ads. And then consumers have significantly higher purchase intention for local ads (3.61) than foreign ads (3.34). It is natural for the Chinese consumers prefer local advertising, as they can easily understand values reflected in the advertising message than the foreign advertising. Therefore, Hypothesis (1) that Chinese consumers have more favourable attitude towards local advertising than toward foreign advertising is supported.

(2) Comparison between Informational and Transformational Advertising

When considering local advertising, consumers have significantly better attitude toward advertising for transformational ads (4.18) than informative ads (3.80) (Table 2). There is no significant difference in attitude toward brand and purchase intention between informational and transformational advertising. For foreign advertising, consumers also have significantly better attitude toward advertising for transformational ads (3.96) than informational ads (3.18). Consumers also have significantly better attitude toward the brand for transformational ads (4.23) than informational ads (3.79). However, there is no significant difference in purchase intention between transformational advertising (3.42) and informational advertising (3.17).

Therefore, it is more effective to use transformational advertising than informational advertising in terms of creating more favorable attitude toward the ad for Chinese consumers. Consumers even create more favorable attitude toward the brands for foreign made transformational advertising.

When comparing the local informational and foreign informational advertising, consumers have significantly better attitude towards the advertisement on local ad (3.82) than foreign ad (3.23). At the same time, consumers have significantly better attitude toward the brand shown in local informational advertising (4.15) than that shown in foreign informational advertising (3.68). However, there is no significant difference in purchase intention between foreign and local informational advertising.

When comparing the local transformational advertising and foreign transformational advertising, a significant difference is found in attitude toward the ad, the brand and purchase intention. In all cases, local transformational advertising is more effective in terms of favorable attitudes than foreign transformational advertising.

When comparing the local informational advertising and foreign transformational advertising, the respondents have significantly better attitude toward foreign transformational as (4.29) than local information ads (3.79). However, there is no significant difference in attitude toward the brand and purchase intention.

When comparing the local transformational advertising and foreign informational advertising, the respondents have significantly better attitude toward the ad, the brand and purchase intention for local transformational advertising than foreign informational advertising.

The above results reflect that the consumers prefer transformational advertising and local advertising than informational advertising and foreign advertising. They even prefer more to transformational advertising than local advertising. Therefore Hypothesis (2) that Chinese consumers have more favourable attitudes towards local advertising for those transformational ads than informational ads is supported.

(3) Comparison between American and European Advertising

For American brand advertising, consumers have significantly better attitude toward the ad for local-made ads (3.98) than US-made ads (3.71) (Table 3). Consumers also have significantly better attitude toward the brand for local-made ads (4.39) than US-made ads (4.10). However, there is no significant different in purchase intention between local or US-made ads.

For European brand advertising, no significant difference is found in attitude toward the ad between local-made and European-made ads. But consumers have significantly better attitude toward the brand for local-made ads (4.39) than foreign-made ads (4.09). They also have significantly higher purchase intention for local-made ads (3.67) than foreign-made ads (3.21).

In this case, Chinese consumers have more favorable attitude towards American brands than European brands. Therefore, the purchase intention towards American brands does not depend on the attitude towards the advertisements. Consumers are less familiar with European brands; they do not care much whether the ad is foreign- or local-made. But still they show significantly more favorable brand attitude and higher purchase intention towards the local-made ads than European-made ads. Therefore, Hypothesis (3) that Chinese consumers have more favourable attitudes towards local advertising for American Brands (more familiar brands) than European brands (less familiar brands) is supported.

(4) Comparison between Food and Non-food advertising

For food product advertising, consumers have a slightly better attitude towards the ad for foreign-made ads (4.11) than local-made ads (3.89) (Table 4). But consumers still have a significantly better attitude toward the brand for local-made ads (4.5) than foreign-made ads (4.22). No significant difference is found on consumers’ purchase intention. For non-food advertising, local ads are significantly more preferable than foreign-made ads by the consumers in terms of attitude toward the ad (3.5 versus 3.06), the brand (4.33 versus 4.02) and purchase intention (3.49 versus 3.18).

Chinese consumers prefer foreign-made ads than local-made ads for food brands. This may be due to the fact that food brands are less culture-bound and the Chinese consumers can easily understand the meaning more than non-food brands. In general, local-made advertising can create more favorable attitude toward the ad, the brand and higher purchase intention for non-food products. Therefore, Hypothesis (4) that Chinese consumers have more favourable attitudes towards local advertising for those Food products than Non-food products is not supported.

CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS

From Chinese consumers’ point of view, there is a better perception towards local advertising than toward foreign advertising. Locally made advertising is more effective than foreign-made advertising in terms of generating more favourable atitude toward the ad, favourable attitude the brand and higher purchase intention. This is particularly true for non-food brands. At the same time, transformational advertising is even more effective in creating favourable attitude toward the ad regardless of its point of origin.

As Chinese consumers belong to high-context cultures, it is not surprising that they prefer transformational advertising rather than informational advertising. A high context message is one in which most of the information is already in the person, while very little is in the coded, explicit, transmitted part of the message (Hall 1976). The high context Chinese culture is intuitive and contemplative, and tends to utilize indirect and ambiguous messages. As a result, Chinese consumers prefer emotional rather than rational appeals (Lazer et al 1995). Transformational advertising is more likely to be used in the collective cultures with high-power distance. Emotional messages such as those used for creating brand image and user image are more frequently used in markets with higher advertising expenditures per capita, with low uncertainty avoidance and collectivism, like Hong Kong (Zandpour and Harich 1996).

It can be implied that transformational messages are more frequently used in collective cultures with long-term orientation because people from collective societies rely more on in-group relationship and are more emotional and implicit responses to their group. It is generally believed that collective cultures and transformational message strategies are highly associated. Due to the Confucian influences, cultures with long-term orientation and collectivism are more likely to be exposed in transformational strategies.

A low context communication is just the opposite; that is, the mass of the information is vested in the explicit code (Hall 1976). American and European cultures belong to low-context cultures and are therefore analytical and action oriented, and tend to use clearly articulated and spoken messages. Informational strategies were more likely to be used in societies of low-power distance and high uncertainty avoidance. People of individualistic cultures rely on factual informational for decision-making and insist on drawing their own conclusions. Informational message strategies were more likely to be used in realistic cultures, with simplistic lifestyles. Cultures with realism were more likely to appreciate the explicit verbal communication, logical reasoning and factual description that were provided in the informational messages. Due to the left-brain processing characterized by the realistic cultures, individuals are more likely to place emphasis on factual and objective evidence. They tend to prefer verbal and statistical presentations, rather than intuitive and imaginative ones and they can be regarded as verbalizers. As they are more comfortable to be exposed in informative environment, the advertising message styles tend to be informative and the ads rely more on the content on comparative, factual and unique selling proposition. As a result, a direct transfer of foreign-made advertising from a low-context culture to a high-context Chinese culture is not likely to be successful.

TABLE 2

EFFECTS ON ATTITUDE TOWARD ADVERTISING, BRAND AND PURCHASE INTENTION: COMPARISON BETWEEN INFORMATIONAL AND TRANSFORMATIONAL ADVERTISING

TABLE 3

EFFECTS ON ATTITUDE TOWARD ADVERTISING, BRAND AND PURCHASE INTENTION: COMPARISON BETWEEN AMERICAN AND EUROPEAN ADVERTISING

TABLE 4

EFFECTS ON ATTITUDE TOWARD ADVERTISING, BRAND AND PURCHASE INTENTION: COMPARISON BETWEEN FOOD AND NON-FOOD ADVERTISING

Due to the cultural differences between the home country and the local Chinese market, the adoption of advertising execution should be adapted to the Chinese culture characteristics and transformational advertising should be used. Besides the culture characteristics, the construct of involvement, the relationship between a person and a product, and purchase decisions should also be considered in the future research. Understanding the involvement concept is important for advertisers, providing a basis for deciding whether to emphasize transformational advertising appeals or raise the level of involvement. Since food products are somewhat low-involvement products, foreign-made and transformational advertising are more easily accepted by the consumers.

For the more familiar American brands, Chinese consumers prefer local advertising rather than the less familiar European brands. The consumer involvement will become lower for those more familiar brands; therefore, Chinese consmers will prefer local-made American brand advertising. On the opposite, for the unfamiliar brands, the consumer involvement will be higher and they prefer to look for more informational foreign-made European brand advertising.

Based on the above findings, the direct transfer of foreign advertising to the Chinese markets is quite difficult. There are more country differences than similarities. If the product is a food products and of less familiar brands, standardization of advertising can be feasible. For the familiar brands, it is recommended to employ local approach with respect to the Chinese cultural characteristics. Therefore, if a company sets out to design global advertising, the country from which the ad originates is important. Both headquarters and local advertising executives should conduct research on the relationships between cultural variables and advertising objectives, strategies and executions.

REFERENCES:

Anonymous (1993), "Regional Advertising: Remixing the Message", Business Asia 25(4): 4-5.

Banerjee, Ashish (1994), "Global Campaigns Don’t Work; Multinationals Do", Advertising Age 65(17): 23: April 18.

Eger, John M. (1987), "Global Television: An Executive Overview", Columbia Journal of World Business, 22(3), 5-10.

Gardner, Meryl Paula (1985), "Does Attitude toward the Ad Affect Brand Attitude Under a Brand Evaluation Set?", Journal of Marketing Research, 22 (May), 192-198.

Gresham, Larry G. and Shimp, Terence A. (1985), "Attitude Toward the Advertisement and Brand Attitudes: A Classical Conditioning Perspective", Journal of Advertising 14(1):10-17, 49

Hall, E.T. (1976), Beyond Culture, Anchor Press/Doubleday, New York, NY.

Hong, J.W. and Muderrisoglu, A. (1987), "Cultural Differences and Advertising Expressions: a Comparative Content Analysis of Japanese and US Magazine Advertising", Journal of Advertising, Vol.10 (Spring).

Krugman, Herbert E. (1972), "Why Three Exposures May Be Enough?", Journal of Advertising Research, 12(6), 11-14, Dec.

Laskey H.A., Fox R.J. and Crask M.R., (1995) "The Relationship between Advertising Message Strategy and Television Commercial Effectiveness", Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 35(2), Mar/Apr.

Mueller, Barbara (1987), "Reflections of Culture: An analysis of Japanese and American Advertising Appeals," Journal of Advertising Research, (June/July), 51-59.

Mitchell, Andrew and Jerry C. Olson (1981), "Are Product Attribute Beliefs the Only Mediator of Advertising Effects on Brand Attitude?" Journal of Marketing Research, 18 (August), 318-332.

Mooij, Marieke de. (1997), Global Marketing and Advertising: Understanding Cultural Paradoxes, Sage Publications.

Quelch, John A. and Hoff, Edward J (1986), "Customizing Global Marketing", Harvard Business Review 64(3): 59-68 May/June.

Siu Wai-sum and Chan Hau-ming Carmen (1997), "Country-of-origin Effects on Product Evaluations: the Case of Chinese Consumers in Hong Kong", Journal of International Marketing and Marketing Research 22(3): 115-122, Oct.

Tai, H.C. Susan (1997), "Advertising in Asia: Localize or Regionalize?", International Journal of Advertising, 16, 48-61.

Tse D. K., Belk R.W. and Zhou N., (1989), "Becoming a Consumer Society: A Longitudinal and Cross-Cultural Content Analysis of Print Ads from Hong Kong, the People’s Republic of China, and Taiwan", Journal of Consumer Research, Vol.15, March, 457-472.

Van Raaij, W. Fred (1997), "Globalization of Marketing Communication?", Journal of Economic Psychology 18, 259-270.

Zandpour, F. (1992), "Stories, Symbols, and Straight Talk: A Comparative Analysis of French, Taiwanese, and U.S. TV Commercials", Journal of Advertising Research, 32(1): 25-38, Jan/Feb.

Zandpour F. (1994), "Global Reach and Local Touch: Achieving Cultural Fitness in TV Advertising", Journal of Advertising Research, Sept/Oct.

Zandpour F. and Hariah K. (1996), "Think and Feel Country Clusters: A New Approach to International Advertising Standardization", International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 15.

----------------------------------------

Authors

Susan Tai, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong
Jae Pae, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong



Volume

AP - Asia Pacific Advances in Consumer Research Volume 4 | 2001



Share Proceeding

Featured papers

See More

Featured

When People Stop Being Nice and Start Getting “Real”: Use of Identity Labels for Stigmatized Groups

Esther Uduehi, University of Pennsylvania, USA
Americus Reed, University of Pennsylvania, USA

Read More

Featured

Thou Shalt Not Look! When Processing the Odds Visually Biases Gambling Behavior

Rod Duclos, Western University, Canada
Mansur Khamitov, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore

Read More

Featured

P10. Omission Bias in the Gain vs. Loss Domain

Jen H. Park, Stanford University, USA

Read More

Engage with Us

Becoming an Association for Consumer Research member is simple. Membership in ACR is relatively inexpensive, but brings significant benefits to its members.