Control Over Time Predicts Greater Life Satisfaction Among Millionaires

We assess the time use of millionaires and the general population. Millionaires spend more time on active (exercise) than passive (television) leisure. Millionaires also spend more time on autonomous work. In turn, active leisure and autonomous work predict happiness: wealthy individuals reap happiness by exerting greater control over their time.


Ashley Whillans, Paul Smeets, Rene Bekkers, and Michael Norton (2017) ,"Control Over Time Predicts Greater Life Satisfaction Among Millionaires ", in NA - Advances in Consumer Research Volume 45, eds. Ayelet Gneezy, Vladas Griskevicius, and Patti Williams, Duluth, MN : Association for Consumer Research, Pages: 79-84.


Ashley Whillans, Harvard University, USA
Paul Smeets, Maastricht University, The Netherlands
Rene Bekkers, VU Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Michael Norton, Harvard University, USA


NA - Advances in Consumer Research Volume 45 | 2017

Share Proceeding

Featured papers

See More


E6. The Effect of Crowding Perception on Helping Behavior ——Is Squeeze Warmer than Isolation?

Qingqing Guo, Shanghai Jiao Tong University

Read More


Millionaires on Instagram: Millennials’ Display of Experiential Luxury and Personal Branding Strategies on Visual Social Media

Marina Leban, ESCP Europe, France
Benjamin G. Voyer, ESCP Europe, France

Read More


F6. Can CSR Save a Firm From a Crisis? A Role of Gratitude in the Buffering Effect of CSR on Consumer Vindictive Behavior.

Junghyun Kim, NEOMA Business School
Taehoon Park, University of South Carolina, USA
Myungsuh Lim, Sangji University

Read More

Engage with Us

Becoming an Association for Consumer Research member is simple. Membership in ACR is relatively inexpensive, but brings significant benefits to its members.