Leave Them Smiling: How Concretely Framing a Prosocial Goal Creates More Happiness

Are some prosocial pursuits better able to increase personal happiness? We demonstrate that, contrary to people’s intuitions, performing a prosocial act with the concretely-framed goal of making someone smile (versus the abstractly-framed goal of making someone happy) boosts the giver’s happiness by shrinking the gap between their expectations and reality.


Melanie Rudd, Jennifer Aaker, and Michael Norton (2013) ,"Leave Them Smiling: How Concretely Framing a Prosocial Goal Creates More Happiness", in NA - Advances in Consumer Research Volume 41, eds. Simona Botti and Aparna Labroo, Duluth, MN : Association for Consumer Research, Pages: .


Melanie Rudd, University of Houston, USA
Jennifer Aaker, Stanford University, USA
Michael Norton, Harvard Business School, USA


NA - Advances in Consumer Research Volume 41 | 2013

Share Proceeding

Featured papers

See More


L2. Wish List Thinking: The Role of Psychological Ownership in Consumer Likelihood to Purchase or Remove a Product from an Online Wish List

Christopher Groening, Kent State University, USA
Jennifer Wiggins, Kent State University, USA
Iman Raoofpanah, Kent State University, USA

Read More


M3. #FOMO: How the Fear of Missing Out Drives Consumer Purchase Decisions

Michelle van Solt, Florida International University
Jessica Rixom, University of Nevada, Reno
Kimberly Taylor, Florida International University

Read More


The Mystique of Masculine and Feminine Choices: How Aversive Feelings Underlie Preferences

Niusha Jones, University of North Texas
Blair Kidwell, University of North Texas

Read More

Engage with Us

Becoming an Association for Consumer Research member is simple. Membership in ACR is relatively inexpensive, but brings significant benefits to its members.