Life Trajectory and Consumer Self-Sufficiency

W. Thomas Anderson, Jr.,   [Associate Professor of Marketing, The University of Texas at Austin.]  [Associate Professor of Marketing, The University of Texas at Austin.]
Linda L. Golden,
ABSTRACT - Four consumer groups who differed in their past history of migration and residential orientation were identified: Young Suburbanites, Entrenched Ruralites, Established Urbanites and Counterstream Migrants. These consumer groups varied in their degree of self-sufficiency/market dependence, as they had different utilization patterns for alternative food staple and clothing sources of supply. While market dependence (on full-line retail institutions) prevailed, overall, Entrenched Ruralites were the most self-sufficient and Established Urbanites were the most market dependent.
[ to cite ]:
W. Thomas Anderson, Jr. and Linda L. Golden (1980) ,"Life Trajectory and Consumer Self-Sufficiency", in NA - Advances in Consumer Research Volume 07, eds. Jerry C. Olson, Ann Abor, MI : Association for Consumer Research, Pages: 35-40.

Advances in Consumer Research Volume 7, 1980     Pages 35-40

LIFE TRAJECTORY AND CONSUMER SELF-SUFFICIENCY

W. Thomas Anderson, Jr.  [Associate Professor of Marketing, The University of Texas at Austin.]

Linda L. Golden  [Associate Professor of Marketing, The University of Texas at Austin.]

[The research was conducted under grants from The University of Texas Research Institute and the Institute for Constructive Capitalism, the Graduate School of Business, The University of Texas at Austin. We wish to acknowledge the invaluable assistance of Nancy M. Ridgway at every stage of the research.]

ABSTRACT -

Four consumer groups who differed in their past history of migration and residential orientation were identified: Young Suburbanites, Entrenched Ruralites, Established Urbanites and Counterstream Migrants. These consumer groups varied in their degree of self-sufficiency/market dependence, as they had different utilization patterns for alternative food staple and clothing sources of supply. While market dependence (on full-line retail institutions) prevailed, overall, Entrenched Ruralites were the most self-sufficient and Established Urbanites were the most market dependent.

INTRODUCTION

As early as the late 1800's Ravenstein (1889) documented the existence of counterstream migration, population migration in the opposite direction from the historical or mainstream pattern of domestic migration toward urban concentrations. Yet it was not until 1973 that popular interest was first focused on counterstream migration following the revelation that the dominant pattern of domestic migration toward urban centers of employment and economic activity that historically characterized the United States had been reversed. At no prior time in contemporary history, with the possible exception of a brief period in the heart of the Great Depression, had American society exhibited nonmetropolitan population growth rates in excess of metropolitan rates of growth (Beale 1975). Yet the emerging counterstream migration pattern cannot be interpreted as a back-to-the-farm movement, as growth of rural communities has been accompanied by further declines in the farm population (Beale 1976 p. 956).

While the counterstream migration phenomenon of the 1970's is not as yet well understood, Calvin L. Beale, Leader of Population Studies for the U.S. Department of Agriculture, cites four facilitating factors (Beale 1975 p. 9; 1976 p. 955):

- Decentralization of manufacturing to nonmetropolitan areas,

- Decentralization of jobs in trade or other non-goods producing sectors,

- Decentralization of recreation and retirement facilities, often occurring in the same locale, and

- Decentralization of state colleges and trade and technical schools.

Additional catalysts of counterstream migration in recent years which may partially explain the appeal of the Sunbelt are:

- Spiraling inflation, favoring relocation to rural areas with relatively lower costs of living, and

- Deteriorating availability of resources, principally energy resources, particularly in colder climates.

It appears that the appeal of major urban areas has dimmed for many Americans, quite apart from economic considerations. The counterstream migration movement increasingly characteristic of the United States may be a reflection of a widespread reordering of lifestyle priorities, modifying the axiomatic assumption of an economic impetus to urbanization that professional demographers have so long taken for granted. Counterstream migration may constitute one attempt to reclaim control over the material, physical and spiritual conditions of one's own life and the immediate surrounding environment, fueled by a compulsive quest for an elusive "frontier of the mind" (Morrison and Wheeler 1976 p. 3) with all its lifestyle possibilities.

Consumer Self-sufficiency

The same constellation of environmental forces that apparently conspired to alter traditional patterns of domestic migration may have helped spawn a phenomenon of equal interest to consumer analysts: a resurgence of consumer self-sufficiency. At the extreme, self-sufficiency may be conceived as total self-reliance in production and protection, as in pioneer days. However, in terms of contemporary lifestyles self-sufficiency is more properly conceived of as reduced dependence on the marketplace, accompanied by supplemental self-production of selected food staples and clothing and perhaps even household items or fuel. For example, a victory garden might supply some of a consumer's fruits and vegetables.

The scaling down of market dependence may be necessitated by inflation and indirectly by resource scarcity. Alternatively, consumer self-sufficiency may fit within the context of an overall scaling down of lifestyle by relatively affluent individuals. Voluntary or nonvoluntary simplification of life may suggest a reduction in market dependence. Indeed, the Stanford Research Institute has predicted that the "fastest growing sector of the (American) market is people who don't want to buy much." (Elgin and Mitchell 1977 p. 4). The potentially ominous overtones of decreasing market dependence for marketers are obvious.

Conversely, simplification of life may not imply reduced market dependence at all, but may instead result in a realignment of patronage patterns among original and finished goods suppliers. The pattern of patronage characterizing consumers as they move toward a more simplistic lifestyle suggests reduced dependence on suppliers of finished products, particularly those products amenable to self-production, accompanied by a shift in patronage up the channel of distribution toward original suppliers. A reallocation of discretionary income between original and finished goods suppliers on the part of consumers seeking a greater measure of self-sufficiency suggests the need for a reassessment and possible realignment of marketing effort on the part of supplying firms.

Purpose and Significance

The purpose of the research is to investigate the existence and extent of relative self-sufficiency/market dependence for different types of migrants and non-migrants. The degree of self-sufficiency, or alternatively, market dependence, is compared for migrant and nonmigrant typologies. While lifestyle priorities were not directly measured, the existence of migration and self-sufficiency have potential implications for lifestyle priorities among some groups of consumers.

The significance of counterstream migration and consumer self-sufficiency for consumer analysts lies in the possible implication of a widespread restructuring of lifestyle priorities embracing both migrants and nonmigrants and self-sufficient and market dependent consumers. This restructuring of lifestyle priorities may have far reaching consequences for patterns of patronage and self-production. By examining the relationship between migration and consumer self-sufficiency analysts can better assess the extent to which both phenomena converge in a common pattern of patronage and consumption behavior. By implication, then, analysts can determine the extent to which both phenomena evidence a restructuring of lifestyles along common priorities and the needed realignments in marketing effort on the part of raw materials and finished product suppliers.

In general, it was expected that rural residents would be the most self-sufficient and urban residents would be the most market dependent. Counterstream and mainstream migrants were expected to fall in between. It was not expected that consumers would exhibit absolute or total self-sufficiency, rather the focus was upon relative self-sufficiency.

METHODOLOGY

A sample of 4500 potential respondents in eastern Oklahoma was drawn at random from recently issued telephone directories for five trading areas representing an urban-to-rural geographic continuum. In order of increasing urban isolation, with population (N) and sample (n) sizes indicated in parentheses, the areas sampled were: Urban Tulsa (N = 331,650; n = 1500); selected suburbs of Tulsa (N = 46,050; n = 1500), Muskogee (N = 37,350; n = 500), Checotah (N = 3,075; n = 500), and Stigler (N = 2,350; n = 500). Prior to administration, the questionnaire was pretested and revised to ensure clarity of interpretation. Eight hundred thirty-three respondents returned completed questionnaires for an overall response rate of 18.5 percent; the lowest socioeconomic strata were somewhat under-represented. The response rate is partially attributable to an absence of follow-up response incentives.

Migration and Self-sufficiency Data Collection

A life trajectory construct (Anderson and Golden 1979) was used to identify migration typologies. Life trajectory is defined as the individual's past pattern of migration and residential orientation over their life cycle.

In order to gather the life trajectory data, respondents were asked to indicate the size of the community where they lived most of the time during seven life cycle stages:

- 17 years of age or younger

- 18-23 years of age

- 24-34 years of age

- 35-49 years of age

- 50-64 years of age

- 65 years of age and older

The community size options presented were:

- Very large city

- Large city

- Suburb or town close to large city

- Medium size

- Small size

- Very small size

- Farm or ranch

The self-sufficiency information was gathered by asking respondents to indicate all sources from which they customarily obtain five types of products:

- fruits and vegetables

- dairy

- poultry, fowl and fish

- beef, lamb and pork

- clothes

The five response categories presented to the respondents for each product type ranged from self-sufficient behavior (e.g., produce my own) to convenience-oriented behavior (e.g., buy at convenience stores). Response options for each product category are presented in Table 2.

The products used in this exploratory investigation of migration and self-sufficiency were selected because they are relatively amenable to self-production or accessible from original producers, regardless of place of residence.

Development of Life Trajectory Typologies

Life trajectory was operationalized according to five characteristic dimensions of individual patterns of past migration and residential orientation: number of life cycle stages, residential orientation, direction and variability of migration, and mobility.

Number of life cycle stages: The number of age categories through which the individual has passed.

Residential orientation: A static index describing the average residential area size occupied by the individual over their life cycle. Residential orientation was computed by dividing the sum of community sizes across age categories by the number of life cycle stages through which the individual has passed.

Direction of migration: A dynamic dimension of the individual's life trajectory derived from the pattern and sequence of urban-rural migration across life cycle stages. Respondents were assigned a code designating them an urban, suburban or rural nonmigrant, or an urban- or rural-directed, or mixed migrant.

Variability of migration: The magnitude of change in sizes of communities of residence occupied over the life cycle. It equals the sum of the weighted absolute difference in community sizes across life cycle stages divided by the sum of the weights. Because more recent communities of residence were thought to exercise a more pronounced influence on current shopping and consumption behavior, absolute differences in community sizes across life cycle stages were weighted according to recency: 5 x most recent difference, 4 x second most recent difference, 3 x third most recent difference, etc.

Mobility: Frequency of change in urban-rural residence across life cycle stages: Equals the sum of the weighted changes in community of residence across life cycle stages divided by the sum of the weights. Again because of the alleged importance of more recent communities of residence on shopping and consumption behavior number of changes in community of residence across life cycle stages were weighted as to regency: 6 x number of changes in community of residence in most recent life cycle stage, 5 x number of changes in community of residence in second most recent life cycle stage, etc.

Each respondent received a score for each of the five dimensions of life trajectory. Subjects' scores were then submitted to the K-means Iterative Clustering Program (McRae 1971) to identify consumer groups characterized by contrasting patterns of past migration and residential orientation. A four cluster solution was selected, maximally homogeneous internally and maximally differentiated along the five dimensions of life trajectory, which was also intuitively appealing. The four life trajectory typologies are described below for each of the five dimensions of life trajectory:

- Cluster 1 (n = 210): Young Suburbanites

Earliest stage in life cycle Medium sized community orientation Urban-directed

Low variability of migration

Low mobility

Cluster 2 (n = 215): Entrenched Ruralites

Latest stage in life cycle

Small community orientation

Very slightly urban-directed

Low variability of migration

Low mobility

Cluster 3 (n = 243): Established Urbanites

Intermediate stage in life cycle

Large city or suburban orientation

Neither urban- nor rural-directed

Lowest variability of migration

Lowest mobility

Cluster 4 (n = 132): Counterstream Migrants

Early stage in life cycle

Suburban to medium sized city orientation Rural-directed

Low variability of migration

Mobile

While arbitrary, the labels coined to describe the emerging clusters were thought to capture the essence of their contrasting patterns of past migration and residential orientation, rather than simply reflecting community of current residence. The cluster profiles reveal a number of notable contrasts. Young Suburbanites and Counterstream Migrants were complimentary in Direction of Migration and Mobility: Young Suburbanites were urban-directed but relatively immobile, while Counterstream Migrants were rural-directed yet highly mobile. Entrenched Ruralites and Established Urbanites were complimentary in Residential Orientation: Entrenched Ruralites consisted of life-long rural residents, while Established Urbanites consisted of life-long or long-term urban residents.

Market Dependence/Self-Sufficiency Scoring

A composite index of market dependence/self-sufficiency was computed for each respondent on the basis of responses to five questions surveying sources of supply of four food staples and clothing. Codes were associated with each alternative source of supply, such that self-production was assigned a five and convenience outlets received an one.. In the case of clothing, "large department store" was coded a one, indicating traditional market dependence.

Since respondents had been instructed to indicate all sources where they obtained each of the five product types separately, the following formula was applied to each question:

EQUATION    (1)

The scores for each question were then summed and divided by the number of questions each respondent answered. Thus, each respondent received a composite market dependence/self-sufficiency score which could range from one to five, with one indicating a convenience orientation and five indicating self-sufficiency.

In addition, each respondent received a self-sufficiency or market dependence score for each product category. The same coding scheme and formula were applied to each of the five types of products individually as were used to compute the composite index. That is, for each question, the summation of the coded responses was divided by the number of responses.

Analysis

There were three phases in the analysis. First, the composite market dependence index scores were submitted to one-way analysis of variance with the life trajectory typologies as the independent variable. Second, the market dependence score for each product was submitted to one-way analysis of variance with life trajectory typologies as the independent variable. Scheffe tests were used for paired comparisons between all mean scores. Finally, for each response option (i.e., grow my own) for each product a chi square was computed to compare the frequency of that response across life trajectory typologies. The chi square was computed on binary data, with "one" indicating use of a source and "two" indicating non-use of a source.

RESULTS

The four life trajectory typologies showed significant contrasts in both degree and type of market dependence/ self-sufficiency. The presentation of findings parallels the steps in the analyses.

Self-sufficiency Indices

Table 1 shows the results of the one-way analyses of variances for the four life trajectory typologies and the market dependence/self-sufficiency indices. While all four life trajectory typologies were characterized by a fairly high degree of dependence on large multi-line retailers, there were significant differences among the groups for the composite market dependence/self-sufficiency index. The Entrenched Ruralites were the most self-sufficient and the Established Urbanites were the least self-sufficient, as would be expected. The Established Urbanites were significantly less self-sufficient than both the Entrenched Ruralites and the Young Suburbanites. As expected, those consumer typologies characterized by contrasting directions of migration, the Young Suburbanites and the Counterstream Migrants, were between the two extremes, with Counterstream Migrants only slightly more dependent on large multi-line retailers.

The four life trajectory typologies exhibited significantly different degrees of self-sufficiency for fruits and vegetables, dairy products, and poultry, fowl and fish. With similar directional results as on the composite index, the extreme urban and rural consumer groups occupied contrasting positions in market dependence for fruits and vegetables: Established Urbanites were highest in dependence on full-line retailers and Entrenched Ruralites were the most self-sufficient. Young Suburbanites were all but indistinguishable from Established Urbanites in degree of dependence on full-line retailers for fruits and vegetables, with Counter-stream Migrants approximating the average among the four groups.

TABLE 1

RESULTS OF ONE-WAY ANALYSES OF VARIANCE FOR THE LIFE TRAJECTORY TYPOLOGIES AND MARKET DEPENDENCE/SELF-SUFFICIENCY INDICES

While the F-ratio for the dairy products index and the poultry, fowl and fish index were significant, there were no significant Scheffe tests for group mean paired comparisons. Counterstream Migrants were highest in dependence on full-line retailers and Established Urbanites lowest for dairy products, with Young Suburbanites and Entrenched Ruralites in between. Established Urbanites were again highest in degree of dependence on full-line retailers for poultry, fowl or fish, followed closely by Counterstream Migrants and Entrenched Ruralites, with Young Suburbanites lagging somewhat.

Utilization of Individual Sources of Supply

While the relative ranks of the four life trajectory typologies on the composite index of market dependence/self-sufficiency conform largely to intuition, the relative rankings with respect to the components of market dependence/self-sufficiency revealed in the disaggregated indices were sufficiently variable to suggest the need to look beyond summary measures to the underlying patterns of patronage among all alternative sources of supply of the four food staples and clothing. Table 2 reports the percentage of each life trajectory typology utilizing each alternative as a source of supply for the four food staples and for clothing and the significance level of the associated chi square statistic. Since respondents were asked to indicate all sources customarily used, multiple responses resulted in percentages totaling in excess of 100 percent for all product types.

The most obvious, if least surprising, finding is the primary reliance for all four life trajectory typologies on the grocery store for all four food staples, and the parallel finding for clothing for which large multi-line retailers provided the principal source of supply. Yet significant differences emerged in degree of reliance on large multi-line retailer sources which largely confirm intuition. While Young Suburbanites, Established Urbanites and Counterstream Migrants, the more urban/suburban consumer groups in past migration and residential orientation, were essentially indistinguishable in their degree of reliance on large multi-line retailers, Entrenched Ruralites were conspicuous by their lesser reliance on full-line retailers.

The most notable finding is the extensive use of secondary or supplemental sources of supply for all product types. Relative emphasis among alternative sources varied considerably across product types for each consumer group. Moreover, relative emphasis among source alternatives varied considerably across consumer groups by product type. A surprisingly high percentage of each life trajectory typology grew their own fruits or vegetables, although for some this may translate into simply growing a few tomatoes. As expected, Entrenched Ruralites and Established Urbanites bracketed the extremes in self-production of fruits or vegetables; nearly half of Entrenched Ruralites grew their own, while one-third of Established Urbanites grew their own. Young Suburbanites and Counterstream Migrants fell in between. The fruit or vegetable stand provided an important supplementary source which produced no significant differences among the consumer groups.

With respect to dairy products, the more urban/suburban consumer groups, particularly Established Urbanites, used home deliveries as an important supplemental source moreso than the more rural consumer typologies. In contrast, Counterstream Migrants and Young Suburbanites patronized convenience stores for dairy products in far greater numbers than did the urban and rural extremes. Self-production provided an important supplemental source of poultry or fish for Young Suburbanites and Entrenched Ruralites, while the consumer groups were indistinguishable in their reliance on specialty poultry or fish markets as important secondary alternatives. Although Entrenched Ruralites, as expected, outranked all other consumer typologies in self-production of beef as an important supplemental source, they lagged considerably in patronage of specialty beef markets. Counterstream Migrants, the other rural-oriented/directed consumer group, approached Entrenched Ruralites in self-production of beef and they mirrored the more urban/ suburban typologies in specialty beef market patronage.

Interestingly, patterns of patronage for clothing tended to parallel those for fruit or vegetables. While large multi-line retailers constituted the principal source of supply for both product types, self-production and specialty stores provided important supplemental sources for all four life trajectory typologies. Significant differences among the consumer groups emerged in use of mail order sources of clothing. Surprisingly, Counter-stream Migrants and Young Suburbanites patronized mail order sources in significantly greater numbers than did Entrenched Ruralites, while Established Urbanites lagged as expected.

TABLE 2

CHI SQUARE ANALYSIS OF INDIVIDUAL SUPPLY SOURCES FOR LIFE TRAJECTORY TYPOLOGIES

Out of these findings a number of perceptible patterns and contrasts among the life trajectory typologies emerge with respect to the relative emphasis on alternative sources of supply summarized in the composite index of market dependence/self-sufficiency. As expected, Entrenched Ruralites and Established Urbanites appear to be characterized by contrasting patterns of patronage and self-production mirroring their opposing positions on the index of market dependence/self-sufficiency. Young Suburbanites and Counterstream Migrants, as expected, exhibited mixed patterns of patronage and self-production placing them between the extremes established by the extreme urban and rural consumer typologies, although sometimes approximating the pattern of either Established Urbanites or Entrenched Ruralites

CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS

The most important observation emerging from the findings is the implication that market dependence versus self-sufficiency is a matter of kind, rather than of degree. Ail four life trajectory typologies exhibited a fairly high degree of dependence on large multi-line retailers for each of the four food staples and for clothing according to both the composite and disaggregated indices of market dependence/self-sufficiency. However, when compared on the basis of patterns of patronage among individual sources of supply for each product investigated the life trajectory typologies were characterized by significant differences with respect to relative emphasis among alternative sources both across product types and across consumer groups.

These contrasting patterns of patronage and self-production synthesized in the summary indices of market dependence/self-sufficiency are apparently circumscribed by the obvious constraints: discretionary income and access to retail options locally. More importantly, however, characteristic patterns of patronage and self-production appear to arise from a legacy of interaction between the consumer and the market environment, an interaction which is itself largely the artifact of past patterns of migration and residential orientation.

The two migrant life trajectory typologies illustrate the potential importance of past histories of migration and residential orientation. On both the overall self-sufficiency index and index for fruits and vegetables, Young Suburbanites and Counterstream Migrants fell between the most self-sufficient typology (Entrenched Ruralites) and the most market dependent typology (Established Urbanites). On one hand, since Counterstream Migrants are moving away from urban areas toward rural areas, it would be expected that they would exhibit more self-sufficiency than Young Suburbanites. However, Counterstream Migrants were more market dependent than Young Suburbanites. On the other hand, these results provide some support for the idea that a consumer's past history of migration and residential orientation is an important influence on current patronage behavior.

The results suggest that Counterstream Migrants still cling to patterns of patronage established in more urban environments and are willing to expend some effort to perpetuate these pre-established patronage patterns. Although the data were not presented here, Counterstream Migrants are relatively extensive outshoppers. Counterstream Migrants may, for the most part, be persons who are trying to escape taxes, congestion, or other drawbacks of city life while still taking advantage of the variety and selection offered by urban retail environments. The fact remains, however, that patronage of alternative supply sources was product specific. While Young Suburbanites more frequently grew fruits and vegetables, more Counterstream Migrants than Young Suburbanites produced their own beef and made their own clothes. Some self-production may be influenced by current area of residence, yet retail availability or access to means of self-production are superficial explanations for self-sufficiency or market dependence. For example, all geographical areas surveyed had a convenience store, yet patterns of patronage among consumer groups varied.

Overall, both Young Suburbanites and Counterstream Migrants exhibit patterns of patronage and self-production reflective of components of those of their more extreme urban and rural consumer counterparts. It appears that their consumer behavior cannot be explained simply on the basis of discretionary income and market access, but instead on the basis of patronage patterns established in prior market environments. Thus neither Young Suburbanites nor Counterstream Migrants have completely reconciled themselves to their current market environments, but have instead resorted to self-production in one case and to extensive outshopping in the other to preserve preferences or patronage patterns developed in the context of prior market environments.

Counterstream migration and consumer self-sufficiency may be phenomena which evidence shifts in lifestyle priorities among some groups of consumers. Self-sufficiency does not necessarily imply a downscaling of consumption, but rather a shift in the products purchased or sources of supply. For example, self-production of fruits and vegetables necessitates the purchase of products (e.g., fertilizer, seed, etc.)which would not otherwise be purchased.

In an industrialized society such as ours it would be unrealistic to expect consumers to exhibit any degree of self-sufficiency approximating total self-sufficiency. However, a relatively frequent source for fruits and vegetables and for clothing is self-production. While the predominant tendency across products and consumer typologies was dependent on full-line retail institutions, the presence of varying degrees of self-sufficiency across consumer typologies cannot be ignored. This may evidence an emerging consumer trend, but at the least it signifies preferential differences of allocation of time and energy resources.

An attempt was made in this research to investigate life trajectory and self-sufficiency both as a generalized "lifestyle" across the products (via the composite index) and as product specific behavior. Differences emerged among life trajectory typologies for both perspectives, and future research into the area should expand the products investigated.

In addition, two major aspects of this research merit special mention as areas for additional research or refinement. First, what are the motivations for self-sufficiency (or counterstream migration, for that matter)? Inferences and speculations were made here, but the question arises as to whether self-sufficiency is a form of boycott for some consumers, or whether it takes on a more positive meaning as a need satisfying hobby or activity. Second, if the array of sources of supply used in this research are interpreted as a continuum, the indices of self-sufficiency/market dependence are potentially misleading. The most accurate statement is that life trajectory typologies exhibit different patterns of sources of supply for the products investigated. The construction of a continuum of channel of distribution distance from the producer is possible, but it is not clear that purchasing beef from a specialty store is any less market dependent than purchasing beef from a grocery store. Self-sufficient behavior may be more accurately viewed as a dichotomy, although a dichotomous conceptualization is neither rich nor as potentially revealing. Measurement of self-sufficiency needs not only to be expanded, but also refined.

REFERENCES

Anderson, W. Thomas, Jr., and Golden, Linda L. (1979), "Life Trajectory: Population Migration and Lifestyle Over Time," Proceedings, American Marketing Association, 291-296.

Beale, Calvin L. (1976), "A Further Look at Nonmetropolitan Population Growth Since 1970," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 50, 953-958.

Beale, Calvin L. (1975), The Revival of Population Growth in Nonmetropolitan America, Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Agriculture.

Elgin, Duane and Mitchell, Arnold (1977), "Voluntary Simplicity," The Co-Evolution Quarterly, Summer, 5-18.

Levenson, Daniel and Huffman, Phyllis (1955), "Traditional Family Ideology and Its Relation to Personality," Journal of Personality, 24, 251-273.

McRae, D. J. (1971), "MIKCA: A Fortran IV Iterative K-Means Cluster Analysis Program," Behavioral Science, 16, 423-424.

Morrison, Peter A. and Wheeler, Judith P. (1976), Rural Renaissance in America? Washington, D.C.: Population Reference Bureau, Inc.

Ravenstein, D. G. (1889), "The Laws of Migration," Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, 52, 241-301.

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