An Examination of Demographic, Lifestyle and Personality Influences on Consumer Preferences For Participating in Promotional Games

Stephen R. McDaniel, University of Maryland
ABSTRACT - Although promotional contests and sweepstakes are popular marketing tools, only a handful of studies have been conducted on this subject over the past 15 years (cf. Browne, Kaldenberg and Brown 1993; Narayana and Raju, 1985; Ward, Hill and Gardner, 1988). Findings in this area suggest that demographics (Browne et al., 1993; Narayana and Raju, 1985) and gambling behaviors are both related to consumers’ preferences for participating in promotional games. Moreover, it has been posited that people who like to take part in these forms of sales promotion have risk-taking (Narayana and Raju, 1985) and/or sensation-seeking personalities (Browne et al., 1993; Ward and Hill, 1991); although, this notion has yet to be examined.
[ to cite ]:
Stephen R. McDaniel (2001) ,"An Examination of Demographic, Lifestyle and Personality Influences on Consumer Preferences For Participating in Promotional Games", in NA - Advances in Consumer Research Volume 28, eds. Mary C. Gilly and Joan Meyers-Levy, Valdosta, GA : Association for Consumer Research, Pages: 19.

Advances in Consumer Research Volume 28, 2001     Page 19

AN EXAMINATION OF DEMOGRAPHIC, LIFESTYLE AND PERSONALITY INFLUENCES ON CONSUMER PREFERENCES FOR PARTICIPATING IN PROMOTIONAL GAMES

Stephen R. McDaniel, University of Maryland

ABSTRACT -

Although promotional contests and sweepstakes are popular marketing tools, only a handful of studies have been conducted on this subject over the past 15 years (cf. Browne, Kaldenberg and Brown 1993; Narayana and Raju, 1985; Ward, Hill and Gardner, 1988). Findings in this area suggest that demographics (Browne et al., 1993; Narayana and Raju, 1985) and gambling behaviors are both related to consumers’ preferences for participating in promotional games. Moreover, it has been posited that people who like to take part in these forms of sales promotion have risk-taking (Narayana and Raju, 1985) and/or sensation-seeking personalities (Browne et al., 1993; Ward and Hill, 1991); although, this notion has yet to be examined.

A telephone survey methodology was employed here, to replicate and extend existing work in this area, by investigating the relationship between respondents’ demographics, lifestyles and personalities and their reported preference for participating in promotional games (n=556). Data for this study were collected as part of a larger state-funded study on the commercial viability of certain gambling activities. A stratified random sampling technique was used to generate a list of names and telephone numbers for adults 18 years of age and older. The survey was conducted in the early fall of 1998, involving two top 25 Designated Market Areas (DMAs) in the eastern United States. The questionnaires were administered by a public opinion research facility using trained callers. Demographicquestions were posed to respondents concerning their demographic characteristics, such as: gender, age, race, education level, household income and family status (cf. Browne et al., 1993; Narayana and Raju, 1985). They were also queried about their lifestyles, in terms of their level of interest in gambling, as well as if they had participated in certain forms of gaming during the past year (i.e., lotteries, racetrack betting, sports betting, video poker and slot machines). The personality trait of sensation seeking was measured using the 19-item Impulsive Sensation Seeking (ImpSS) scale (Zuckerman, 1994; 1996). Finally, preferences for promotional games were gauged based on the answer (yes/no) to the question: "Do you generally like to participate in promotional games, contests, or sweepstakes?". Data were analyzed using a multivariate logistic regression procedure.

Although no significant demographic influences were detected, results support the similarity between promotional game participants and gamblers (Browne et al., 1993; Ward and Hill, 1991). Mean levels of gambling interest, variety in gambling activities and sensation seeking were all found to be associated with respondents’ reported preferences for participating in promotional games. Given that the more varied their gambling pursuits and the higher their levels of ImpSS, the greater their chances of reporting that they like to participate in contests or sweepstakes, it appears that such marketing activities may help to meet consumers’ needs for varied, novel or stimulating experiences.

REFERENCES

Browne, B. A., Kaldenberg, Dennis and Brown, Daniel J. (1993), "Games People Play: A Comparative Study of Promotional Game Participants and Gamblers," Journal of Applied Business Research, 9(1), 93-99.

Narayana, Chem L. and Raju, P. S. (1985), "Gifts Versus Sweepstakes: Consumer Choices and Profiles," Journal of Advertising, 14(1), 50-53.

Ward, James C. and Hill, Ronald P. (1991), "Designing Effective Promotional Games: Opportunities and Problems," Journal of Advertising, 20(3), 69-81.

Ward, James C., Hill, Ronald P. and Gardner, Meryl P. (1988), "Promotional Games: The Effects of Participation on Mood, Attitude, and Information Processing," in Michael J. Houston, ed., Advances in Consumer Research, 15, 135-140.

Zuckerman, Marvin (1996), "Item Revisions in the Sensation Seeking Scale form V," Personality & Individual Differences, 20(4), 515.

Zuckerman, Marvin (1994), Behavioral Expressions and Biosocial Bases of Sensation Seeking. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

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